Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Barley

Nutritional Information

1 cup, barley

  • Calories 193
  • Calories from Fat 6.21
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.69g1%
  • Saturated Fat 0.146g1%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.089g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.336g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 5mg0%
  • Potassium 146mg4%
  • Total Carbohydrate 44.31g15%
  • Dietary Fiber 6g24%
  • Sugars 0.44g
  • Protein 3.55g7%
  • Calcium 2mg0%
  • Iron 12mg67%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 0%

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Barley on Wikipedia:

``Two Row`` redirects here. For the Wampum Treaty, see Guswhenta (Two Row Wampum Treaty). For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). Barley Barley field Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Subfamily: Pooideae Tribe: Triticeae Genus: Hordeum Species: H. vulgare[1] Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare.

Barley serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting (mostly for beer and certain distilled beverages) and in health food. It is used in soups, stews and barley bread in various countries, such as Scotland and in Africa.

In 2007 ranking of cereal crops in the world, barley was fourth both in terms of quantity produced (136 million tons) and in area of cultivation (566,000 km²).[2]

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Etymology

The Oxford English Dictionary records the derivation from the Old English bærlic ``barley``, although the -lic ending may indicate it was an adjective pertaining to the crop or plant, rather than a noun. It was first recorded around 966 CE in the compound word bærlic-croft.[3] The old English word was bære, which was related to the Latin word farina ``flour``, and gave rise to bærlic meaning ``of barley``.[4] It survives in the north of Scotland as bere, and refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there.[5][6][7] The word barn, which originally meant barley-house, is also rooted in these words.[4]

Biology

Barley is a member of the grass family. It is a self-pollinating, diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent and is abundant in disturbed habitats, roadsides and orchards. Outside of this region the wild barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats.[8]

Domestication

Wild barley has a brittle spike; upon maturity, the spikelets separate, facilitating seed dispersal. Domesticated barley has non-shattering spikes, making it much easier to harvest the mature ears.[8] The non-shattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two tightly linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2; many cultivars possess both mutations. The non-shattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele.[8]

Two row and six row barley

Two-row and six-row barley

Spikelets are arranged in triplets which alternate along the rachis. In wild barley (and other Old World species or Hordeum) only the central spikelet is fertile, while the other two are reduced. This condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations (one dominant, the other recessive) result in fertile lateral spikelets. This produces six-row barleys. (See Cultivars).[8] Recent genetic studies have revealed a mutation in one gene, vrs1 is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley[9]

Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley and thus more fermentable sugar content. High protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is usually lower protein [10] ('low grain nitrogen', usually produced without a late fertilizer application) which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, and has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale style beers. Six-row barley is common in some American lager style beers, especially when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used, whereas two-row malted summer barley is preferred for traditional German beers. Four-row is unsuitable for brewing.

Hulled and naked barley

Hulless or ``naked`` barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) is a form of domesticated barley with an easier to remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley in order to increase the digestible energy of the grain, especially for swine and poultry.[11] Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, and for its value-added products. These include bran and flour for multiple food applications.[12]

Classification

In traditional classifications of barley these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications two-rowed barley with shattering spikes (wild barley) is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K.Koch. Two-rowed barley with non-shattering spikes is classified as H. distichum L., six-rowed barley with non-shattering spikes as H. vulgare L. (or H. hexastichum L.), and six-rowed with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Ã…berg.

The fact that these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, has led most recent classifications to treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L.[8]

History

Barley in Egyptian hieroglyphs jt barley determinative/ideogram jt (common) spelling Å¡ma determinative/ideogram Baled barley straw in Falcon, Colorado

Barley was the first domesticated grain in the Near East[13], near the same time as einkorn and emmer wheat.[14] Wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ranges from North Africa and Crete in the west, to Tibet in the east.[8] The earliest evidence of wild barley in an archaeological context comes from the Epipaleolithic at Ohalo II at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee. The remains were dated to about 17000 BCE.[8] The earliest domesticated barley occurs at Aceramic Neolithic sites, in the Near East such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B layers of Tell Abu Hureyra, in Syria. Barley has been grown in the Korean Peninsula since the Early Mumun Pottery Period (c. 1500–850 BCE) along with other crops such as millet, wheat, and legumes.[15]

In the Pulitzer Prize-winning book Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond argues that the availability of barley, along with other domesticable crops and animals, in southwestern Eurasia significantly contributed to the broad historical patterns that human history has followed over approximately the last 13,000 years; i.e., why Eurasian civilizations, as a whole, have survived and conquered others.[16]

Barley beer was probably the first drink developed by Neolithic humans.[17] Barley later on was used as currency.[17] Alongside emmer wheat, Barley was a staple cereal of ancient Egypt, where it was used to make bread and beer. The general name for barley is jt (hypothetically pronounced ``eat``); Å¡ma (hypothetically pronounced ``SHE-ma``) refers to Upper Egyptian barley and is a symbol of Upper Egypt. The Sumerian term is akiti. According to Deuteronomy 8:8, barley is one of the ``Seven Species`` of crops that characterize the fertility of the Promised Land of Canaan, and barley has a prominent role in the Israelite sacrifices described in the Pentateuch (see e.g. Numbers 5:15). A religious importance extended into the Middle Ages in Europe, and saw barley's use in justice, via alphitomancy and the corsned.

In ancient Greece, the ritual significance of barley possibly dates back to the earliest stages of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The preparatory kykeon or mixed drink of the initiates, prepared from barley and herbs, referred in the Homeric hymn to Demeter, whose name some scholars believe meant ``Barley-mother``.[18] The practice was to dry the barley groats and roast them before preparing the porridge, according to Pliny the Elder's