Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Beans

Nutritional Information

1 cup, beans

  • Calories 34
  • Calories from Fat 1.17
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.13g0%
  • Saturated Fat 0.029g0%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.006g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.065g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 7mg0%
  • Potassium 230mg7%
  • Total Carbohydrate 7.84g3%
  • Dietary Fiber 3.7g15%
  • Sugars 1.54g
  • Protein 2g4%
  • Calcium 4mg0%
  • Iron 6mg33%
  • Vitamin A 15%
  • Vitamin C 30%

When In Season:

    Alabama: May (early) - October (early)
    Alaska: July (late) - September (early)
    Arkansas: June (early) - July (late)
    California (Northern): January (early) - December (late)
    Connecticut: July (early) - October (early)
    Delaware: June (late) - October (early)
    Georgia: April (early) - June (late), September (late) - November (early)
    Illinois: June (early) - August (late)
    Indiana: June (early) - August (late)
    Kansas: June (late) - October (early)
    Kentucky: July (early) - September (late)
    Louisiana: June (late) - December (early)
    Maryland: June (early) - September (early)
    Massachusetts: July (early) - August (late)
    Michigan: June (early) - October (late)
    Mississippi: May (early) - November (early)
    Missouri: June (early) - October (late)
    New Hampshire: July (late) - September (early)
    New Jersey: June (early) - August (late)
    New Mexico (North/Central/East): July (early) - October (late)
    New Mexico (Southern): June (early) - November (late)
    New York: June (late) - October (early)
    Ohio: June (early) - August (late)
    Oregon: July (early) - September (late)
    Pennsylvania: July (early) - October (late)
    Vermont: July (late) - September (early)
    Washington: July (early) - November (late)
    Wisconsin: July (late) - September (early)

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Beans on Wikipedia:

For other uses, see Bean (disambiguation). Various type of beans

Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae) used for human food or animal feed.

The whole young pods of bean plants, if picked before the pods ripen and dry, are very tender and may be eaten cooked or raw. Thus the word ``green beans`` means ``green`` in the sense of unripe (many are in fact, not green in color), as the beans inside the pods of green beans are too small to comprise a significant part of the cooked fruit.

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Terminology

The term ``bean`` originally referred to the seed of the broad bean, but was later expanded to include members of the genus Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, and the related genus Vigna. The term is now applied in a general way to many other related plants such as soybeans, peas, lentils, kidney beans, chickpeas (garbanzos), vetches and lupins.[citation needed]

``Bean`` can be used as a near-synonym of ``pulse``, an edible legume, though the term ``pulses`` is usually reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain and usually excludes crops mainly used for oil extraction (like soybeans and peanuts) or those used exclusively for sowing purposes (such as clover and alfalfa). Leguminous crops harvested green for food, such as snap peas, snow peas, etc., are classified as vegetable crops.[citation needed]

In English usage, the word ``beans`` is also sometimes used to mean the seeds or pods of plants that are not in the family Leguminosae, but which bear a superficial resemblance to true beans, for example coffee beans, castor beans and cocoa beans (which resemble bean seeds), and vanilla beans (which resemble the pods).[citation needed]

History

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Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. Broad beans, with seeds the size of the small fingernail, were gathered in their wild state in Afghanistan and the Himalayan foothills.[1] In a form improved from naturally-occurring types, they were already being grown in Thailand since the early seventh millennium BC, predating ceramics.[2] They were deposited with the dead in ancient Egypt. Not until the second millennium BC did cultivated, large-seeded broad beans appear in the Aegean, Iberia and transalpine Europe.[3] In the Iliad (late 8th century) is a passing mention of beans and chickpeas cast on the threshing floor.[4]

The common bean has been cultivated for six thousand years in the Americas.[citation needed] The oldest-known domesticated beans in the Americas were found in Guitarrero Cave, an archaeological site in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BCE.[5]

Beans were an important alternative source of protein throughout Old and New World history, and still are today. There are over 4,000 cultivars of bean on record in the United States alone. An interesting modern example of the diversity of bean use is the modern urban recipe 15 bean soup, which, as the name implies, contains literally fifteen different varieties of bean.

Most of the kinds commonly eaten fresh come from the Americas, being first seen by a European when Christopher Columbus during his exploration of what may have been the Bahamas, found them being grown in fields. Five kinds of Phaseolus beans were domesticated[6] by pre-Columbian peoples: common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown from Chile to the northern part of what is now the United States, and lima and sieva beans (Phaseolus lunatus), as well as the less widely distributed teparies (Phaseolus acutifolius), scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus) and polyanthus beans (Phaseolus polyanthus)[7] One especially famous use of beans by pre-Columbian people as far north as the Atlantic seaboard is the ``Three Sisters`` method of companion plant cultivation:

On the east coast of what would come to be called the United States, some tribes would grow maize (corn), beans, and squash intermingled together, a system which had originated in Mexico. The corn would not be planted in rows as it is today, but in a checkerboard/hex fashion across a field, separate patches of one to four stalks each. Beans would be planted around the base of the developing stalks, and would vine their way up as the stalks grew. All American beans at that time were vine plants, ``bush beans`` having only been bred more recently. The cornstalks would work as a trellis for the beans, and the beans would provide much-needed nitrogen for the corn. Squash would then be planted in the spaces between the patches of corn in the field. They would be provided slight shelter from the sun by the corn, and would deter many animals from attacking the corn and beans, because their coarse, hairy vines and broad, stiff leaves are difficult or uncomfortable for animals like deer and raccoons to walk through, crows to land on, et cetera.

Dry beans come from both Old World varieties of broad beans (fava beans) and New World varieties (kidney, black, cranberry, pinto, navy/haricot).

Types

Beans, average, canned, sugarfree Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 334 kJ (80 kcal) Carbohydrates 10.5 g Fat 0.5 g Protein 9.6 g Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

As illustrated by 15 bean soup, there is a great variety of beans types,[citation needed] including:

Vicia Faba or broad bean Vica faba or broad beans, known in the US as fava beans Vigna Aconitifolia or Moth bean Angularis or azuki bean mungo or urad bean radiata or mung bean umbellatta or ricebean unguiculata or cowpea (includes the black-eyed pea, yardlong bean and others) Cicer arietinum or chickpea (also known as the garbanzo bean) Pisum sativum or pea Lathyrus Lathyrus sativus (Indian pea) Lathyrus tuberosus (Tuberous pea) Lens culinaris or lentil Lentils Lablab purpureus or hyacinth bean Hyacinth Beans Phaseolus acutifolius or tepary bean coccineus or runner bean lunatus or lima bean vulgaris or common bean (includes the pinto bean, kidney bean, caparrones, and many others) Glycine max or soybean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus or winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean) Cajanus cajan or pigeon pea Stizolobium spp or velvet bean Cyamopsis tetragonoloba or guar Canavalia ensiformis or jack bean gladiata or sword bean Macrotyloma M. uniflorum or horse gram Lupinus or Lupin L. mutabilis or tarwi Lupinus albus or lupini bean Erythrina E. herbacea or Coral bean

Toxins

Some kinds of raw beans and especially red and kidney beans, contain a harmful toxin (the lectin Phytohaemagglutinin) that must be destroyed by cooking. A recommended method is to boil the beans for at least ten minutes; undercooked beans may be more toxic than raw beans.[8] Cooking beans in a slow cooker, because of the lower temperatures often used, may not destroy toxins even though the beans do not smell or taste 'bad'[8] (though this should not be a problem if the food reaches boiling and stays there for some time).

Fermentation is used in some parts of Africa to improve the nutritional value of beans by removing toxins. Inexpensive fermentation improves the nutritional impact of flour from dry beans and improves digestibility, according to research co-authored by Emire Shimelis, from the Food Engineering Program at Addis Ababa University. The study is published in the International Journal of Food Science & Technology. Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.[9]

Flatulence

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Many edible beans, including broad beans and soybeans, contain oligosaccharides (particularly raffinose and stachyose), a type of sugar molecule also found in cabbage. An anti-oligosaccharide enzyme is necessary to properly digest these sugar molecules. As a normal human digestive tract does not contain any anti-oligosaccharide enzymes, consumed oligosaccharides are typically digested by bacteria in the large intestine. This digestion process produces flatulence-causing gases as a byproduct. This aspect of bean digestion is the basis for the children's rhyme ``Beans, Beans, the Musical Fruit.``

Some species of mold produce alpha-galactosidase, an anti-oligosaccharide enzyme, which humans can take to facilitate digestion of oligosaccharides in the small intestine. This enzyme, currently sold in the U.S. under the brand-name Beano, can be added to food or consumed separately. In many cuisines beans are cooked along with natural carminatives such as anise seeds, coriander seeds and cumin.

Other strategies include soaking beans in water for several hours before mixing them with other ingredients to remove the offending sugars. Sometimes vinegar is added, but only after the beans are cooked as vinegar interferes with the beans' softening.

Fermented beans will not produce most of the intestinal problems that unfermented beans will, since yeast can consume the offending sugars.

Production

The world leader in production of Dry Bean is Brazil, followed by India and then China. In Europe, the most important producer is Germany.

Top Ten Dry Bean Producers — 11 June 2008 Country Production (Tonnes) Footnote  Brazil 3,330,435  India 3,000,000 F