Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Berries

Nutritional Information

1 cup, berries

  • Calories 48
  • Calories from Fat 3.87
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.43g1%
  • Saturated Fat 0.023g0%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.062g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.225g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 1mg0%
  • Potassium 216mg6%
  • Total Carbohydrate 11.49g4%
  • Dietary Fiber 3g12%
  • Sugars 7.01g
  • Protein 0.98g2%
  • Calcium 2mg0%
  • Iron 3mg17%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 136%

When In Season:

    Alaska: August (early) - September (early)
    Illinois: June (early) - September (late)
    Nevada: August (early) - September (late)

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Berries on Wikipedia:

For other uses, see Berry (disambiguation). Four fruits that are true berries (size not to scale). Clockwise from right: Concord grapes, persimmon, red gooseberries, red currants (top)

The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary, such as a grape. The seeds are usually embedded in the flesh of the ovary. A plant that bears berries is said to be bacciferous, and a berry-like fruit is said to be baccate.

In everyday English, ``berry`` is a term for any small edible fruit. These ``berries`` are usually juicy, round or semi-oblong, brightly coloured, sweet or sour, and don't have a stone or pit, although many seeds may be present.

Many berries, such as the tomato, are edible, but others in the same family, such as the fruits of the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and the fruits of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) are poisonous to humans.

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Types of berries

True berries

Several types of common ``berries``, only one of which (the blueberry) is a berry by botanical definition. Blackberries are aggregate fruit composed of many drupelets, and strawberries are aggregate accessory fruit.

In botanical language, a berry is a simple fruit having seeds and pulp produced from a single ovary; the ovary can be inferior or superior.

Examples of true berries include

Grape, Vitis vinifera Tomato and other species of the family Solanaceae, such as Capsicum, even though some of these have space rather then pulp around their seeds. Barberry (Berberis; Berberidaceae) Currant (Ribes spp.; Grossulariaceae), red, black, and white types Elderberry (Sambucus niger; Caprifoliaceae) Gooseberry (Ribes spp.; Grossulariaceae) Honeysuckle: the berries of some species are edible and are called honeyberries, but others are poisonous (Lonicera spp.; Caprifoliaceae) Mayapple (Podophyllum spp.; Berberidaceae) Nannyberry or sheepberry (Viburnum spp.; Caprifoliaceae) Oregon-grape (Mahonia aquifolium; Berberidaceae) Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides; Elaeagnaceae) Bearberry (Arctostaphylos spp.) Crowberry (Empetrum spp.) Cranberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea Lingonberry Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo), not to be confused with the actual strawberry (Fragaria) Sea Grape (Coccoloba uvifera; Polygonaceae)

Modified berries

The fruit of citrus, such as the orange, kumquat and lemon, is a berry with a thick rind and very juicy interior that is given the special name hesperidium. The fruit of cucumbers, melons and their relatives in the family Cucurbitaceae are berries that are given the special name of pepo.

Not a botanical berry

Many fruits commonly referred to as berries are not actual berries by the scientific definition, but fall into one of these categories:

Drupes

Drupes are fleshy fruits produced from a (usually) single-seeded ovary with a hard stony layer (called the endocarp) surrounding the seed.

Plum Peach Hackberry (Celtis spp.; Cannabaceae)

Pomes

The pome fruits produced by plants in subtribe Pyrinae of family Rosaceae, such as apples and pears, have a structure (the core) that clearly separates the seeds from the ovary tissue. However, some of the smaller pomes are sometimes referred to as berries. Bright red haws (Crataegus) are sometimes called hawberries. Amelanchier pomes become so soft at maturity that they resemble a blueberry and are known as Juneberries or Saskatoon berries.

Compound fruits

Compound fruits are groups or aggregates of multiple individual fruits, and include:

Aggregate fruits contain seeds from different ovaries of a single flower, such as blackberry, raspberry, and bayberry. Multiple fruit, are the fruits of separate flowers, packed closely together. The mulberry, for example, develops from a cluster of tiny flowers and compressed into one ``berry``[1].

Accessory fruits

Other accessory fruit, where the edible part is not generated by the ovary, such as the strawberry for which the aggregate of seed-like achenes is actually the ``fruit``, derived from an aggregate of ovaries.

Color and medical benefits

By contrasting in color with their background, berries are more attractive to animals that eat them, aiding in the dispersal of the plant's seeds.

Berry colors are due to natural plant pigments. Many are polyphenols such as the flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins localized mainly in berry skins and seeds. Berry pigments are usually antioxidants and thus have oxygen radical absorbance capacity (``ORAC``) that is high among plant foods.[2] Together with good nutrient content, ORAC distinguishes several berries within a new category of functional foods called ``superfruits`` and is identified by DataMonitor as one of the top 10 food categories for growth in 2008[3].

Alaska wild ``berries`` from the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Berries List of fruits Accessory fruit Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Drupe

Notes

^ [1] ^ Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE, Prior RL (2004-06-16). Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. J Agric Food Chem 2004 Jun 16;52(12):4026-37.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15186133&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ Fresh, super and organic top trends for 2008, FoodNavigator.com-USA, November 2007

External links

The National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens – Description of berries Encarta.msn.com (Archived 2009-10-31) – Differentiation between true berries, pepos, and hesperidia United States National Berry Crops Initiative Berry Health Benefits Network – Scientists working on the health properties of berries v â€¢ d â€¢ e Types of fruits Types of Fruits Accessory fruit Â· Achene Â· Berry Â· Capsule Â· Caryopsis Â· Drupe Â· False berry Â· Follicle Â· Hesperidium Â· Legume Â· Loment Â· Nut Â· Pepo Â· Pome Â· Samara Â· Schizocarp Â· Silique Categories of Fruits Simple fruit Â· Aggregate fruit  Â· Compound fruit Â· Multiple fruit Â· Dehiscent fruit Function Diaspore Â· Drift fruit