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Bouillon

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For other uses, see Bouillon (disambiguation). Bouillon Flag Coat of arms Location of Bouillon in Luxembourg Bouillon Location in Belgium Sovereign state Belgium Region  Wallonia Community French Community Province  Luxembourg Arrondissement Neufchâteau Coordinates 49°47′0″N 05°04′0″E / 49.783333°N 5.066667°E / 49.783333; 5.066667Coordinates: 49°47′0″N 05°04′0″E / 49.783333°N 5.066667°E / 49.783333; 5.066667 Area 149.09 km² Population – Males – Females – Density 5,455 (2006-01-01) 48.95% 51.05% 37 inhab./km² Age distribution 0–19 years 20–64 years 65+ years (01/01/2006) 22.20% 56.28% 21.52% Foreigners 5.94% (01/07/2005) Unemployment rate 15.14% (1 January 2006) Mean annual income €10,594/pers. (2003) Mayor André Defat (ACTION) Governing parties DEES, UNION, ACTION Postal codes 6830, 6831, 6832, 6833, 6834, 6836, 6838 Area codes 061 Website www.bouillon.be

Bouillon is a municipality of Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region and Luxembourg Province.

The municipality, which covers 149.09 km², had 5,477 inhabitants, giving a population density of 36.7 inhabitants per km².

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History

In the Middle Ages Bouillon was a lordship within the Duchy of Lower Lorraine and the principal seat of the Ardennes-Bouillon dynasty in the 10th and 11th century. In the 11th century they dominated the area, and held the ducal title along with many other titles in the region. Bouillon was the location of the ducal mint and the dominant urban concentration in the dukes' possession.[1]

Western part of the castle (13th/19th centuries).

There is a common misconception that Bouillon was a County. While the lords of Bouillon often were counts and dukes, Bouillon itself was not a county. The fortification of Bouillon was, along with the County of Verdun, the core of the possessions of the Ardennes-Bouillon dynasty, and their combined territory was a complex mixture of fiefs, allodial land and other hereditary rights throughout the area. An example of the latter is the Advocacy of the monastery of Saint-Hubert en Ardennes, which was granted to Godfrey II by the Bishop of Liège.[2]

The Semois river and the castle.

The most famous of the Lords of Bouillon was Godfrey of Bouillon, who sold Bouillon Castle to the Bishopric of Liege. The bishops started to call themselves dukes of Bouillon, and the town emerged as the capital of a sovereign duchy by 1678, when it was captured from the bishopric by the French army and given to the