Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Chili Beans

Nutritional Information

1 cup, chili beans

  • Calories 298
  • Calories from Fat 116.46
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 12.94g20%
  • Saturated Fat 4.28g21%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 5.274g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 1.05g
  • Cholestreol 32mg11%
  • Sodium 1043mg43%
  • Potassium 674mg19%
  • Total Carbohydrate 28.12g9%
  • Dietary Fiber 9.6g38%
  • Sugars 0g
  • Protein 17.44g35%
  • Calcium 9mg1%
  • Iron 36mg200%
  • Vitamin A 20%
  • Vitamin C 6%

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Chili Beans on Wikipedia:

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2009) Chili Con Carne A pot of chili con carne with beans and tomatoes. Origin Alternate name(s) Chili Place of origin Mexico Dish details Serving temperature Hot Main ingredient(s) Chili Peppers Meat Variations Multiple

Chili con carne (literally ``Chili with meat``, often known simply as chili) is a spicy stew. The name ``chili con carne`` is taken from Spanish, and means ``peppers with meat.`` Traditional versions are made, minimally, from chili peppers, meat, garlic, onions, and cumin, along with chopped or ground beef. Beans and tomatoes are frequently included. Variations, both geographic and personal, may involve different types of meat as well as a variety of other ingredients. It can be found worldwide in local variations and also in certain American-style fast food restaurants. The variant recipes provoke disputes among afficionados, and the dish is used as an ingredient in a number of other foods.

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Origins and history

Charles Ramsdell, a writer from San Antonio in an article called San Antonio: A Historical and Pictorial Guide, wrote: ``Chili, as we know it in the U.S., cannot be found in Mexico today except in a few spots which cater to tourists. If chili had come from Mexico, it would still be there. For Mexicans, especially those of Indian ancestry, do not change their culinary customs from one generation, or even from one century, to another.``

A Native American legend from Texas, Arizona and New Mexico claims that Chili was a dish taught to them by Venerable Sister María de Agreda. Described as a beautiful young foreign lady dressed in blue (``The Lady in Blue`` or ``La Dama de Azul``), in the early 1600s. This mysterious lady was a Spanish Nun who taught the Indians how to prepare a dish made with venison, spices and assorted peppers (chilis). Support for this legend can be found in the earliest known record of Sister Ágreda missionary exploits in the New World as recounted in 1670 by Bishop Jose Jimenez Samaniego of Spain. In 1888, Fr. Michael Muller's book Catholic Dogma also recounts Sister Ágreda's interactions with Native Americans in Southwestern United States.[1][2][3]

Chili peppers originated in the Americas and were in wide use in pre-Columbian Mexican culture.[citation needed]

Masa — a meal made from either corn flour (masa harina) or corn that has been treated with caustic lime to make hominy (masa nixtamalera)— is often used as a thickener and flavoring.[citation needed]

The Americanized recipe used for expeditions consisted of dried beef, suet, dried chili peppers (usually chilipiquenes), and salt, which were pounded together and left to dry into bricks, which could then be boiled in pots on the trail.[citation needed]

The ``San Antonio Chili Stand``, in operation at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago, helped people from other parts of the country taste and appreciate chili. San Antonio was a significant tourist destination and helped Texas-style chili con carne spread throughout the South and West.[4] Chili con carne is the official dish of the U.S. state of Texas.[citation needed]

Chili queens

During the 1880s, brightly dressed Hispanic women known as ``chili queens`` began to operate around Military Plaza and other public gathering places in downtown San Antonio. They appeared at dusk, when they built charcoal or wood fires to reheat cauldrons of pre-cooked chili. They sold it by the bowl to passersby. The aroma was a potent sales pitch; mariachi street musicians joined in to serenade the eaters. Some chili queens later built semi-permanent stalls in the mercado (local Mexican market.)[citation needed]

Preparing plates of tortillas and fried beans to sell to pecan shellers, San Antonio, Texas.

In September 1937, the San Antonio Health Department implemented new sanitary regulations that required the chili queens to adhere to the same standards as indoor restaurants. Unable to provide lavatory facilities, the queens and their ``street chili`` culture disappeared overnight. Although Mayor Maury Maverick reinstated the queens' privileges in 1939, the city reapplied the more stringent regulations permanently in 1943.[citation needed]

San Antonio's mercado was renovated in the 1970s, at which time it was the largest Mexican marketplace in the U.S. Local merchants began staging historic re-enactments of the chili queens' heyday. The ``Return of the Chili Queens Festival`` is now part of that city's annual Memorial Day festivities.[citation needed]

Chili parlors

Before World War II, hundreds of small, family-run chili parlors (also known as ``chili joints``) could be found throughout Texas and other states, particularly those in which émigré Texans had made new homes. Each establishment usually had a claim to some kind of ``secret recipe.``[citation needed]

As early as 1904, Chili parlors were opening outside of Texas. After working at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Charles Taylor opened a chili parlor in Carlinville, Illinois, serving ``Mexican Chili``[5]. In the 1920s and 1930s chains of diner-style ``chili parlors`` grew up in the Midwest. As of 2005[update], one of these old-fashioned chili parlors still exists on Pine Street in downtown St. Louis. It features a chili-topped dish called a ``slinger``: two hamburger patties topped with melted American cheese and two eggs, then smothered in chili, all topped off with shredded cheese.[citation needed]

One of the best-known Texas chili parlors, in part because of its downtown location and socially connected clientele, was Bob Pool's ``joint`` in Dallas, just across the street from the headquarters of the elite department store Neiman Marcus. Stanley Marcus, president of the store, frequently ate there. He also bought Pool's chili to send by air express to friends and customers across the country. Several members of General Dwight Eisenhower's SHAPE staff during the early 1950s were reported to have arranged regular shipments of chili from Pool's to their Paris quarters.[citation needed]

Variations

A bowl of Texas-style chili with no beans. Ingredients for chili con carne.

Texas-style chili contains no beans and may even be made with no other vegetables whatsoever besides chili peppers.[6] President Lyndon Johnson's favorite chili recipe became known as ``Pedernales River chili`` after the location of his Texas Hill Country ranch. It calls for eliminating the traditional beef suet (on Johnson's doctor's orders, after LBJ suffered a heart attack while he was U.S. Senate Majority Leader) and adds tomatoes and onions. LBJ preferred venison, when available, to beef; Hill Country deer were thought to be leaner than most.[who?] Lady Bird Johnson, the First Lady, had the recipe printed on cards to be mailed out because of the many thousands of requests the White House received for it.[7]

Pot of chili sin carne.

Vegetarian chili (also known as chili sin carne, chili without meat, or chili) acquired wide popularity in the U.S. during the 1960s and 1970s with the rise of vegetarianism.[citation needed] It is also popular with those on a diet restricting the use of red meat. To make the chili vegetarian, the cook leaves out the meat or replaces it with a meat analogue, such as textured vegetable protein or tofu, or a complementary vegetable, such as potatoes. Variants may contain corn, squash, mushrooms, potatoes, and even beets. Corn, squash, and beans are known as the ``Three Sisters`` of Native American agriculture in the American Southwest.[citation needed] They were cultivated together, and complement each other as foods. Corn and beans together make a complete protein.[citation needed]

Instead of a tomato-based sauce and red meat (beef), white chili is made using great northern beans and turkey meat or chicken breast. The resulting dish appears white when cooked. Cincinnati-style chili is usually eaten as a topping for hot dogs (called ``Coneys``) or spaghetti rather than as a stew by itself. Louisville-style chili includes spaghetti pasta. Chili verde (green chili) is a moderately to extremely spicy Mexican and Mexican-American stew or sauce usually made from chunks of pork that have been slow-cooked in chicken broth, garlic, tomatillos, and roasted green chilis. Tomatoes are rarely used. The spiciness of the chili is adjusted with poblano, jalapeño, serrano, and occasionally habanero peppers.[citation needed] Chili verde is a common filling for the San Francisco burrito.[citation needed]

Controversy over ingredients

Beans

A bowl of chili con carne with beans and tortilla chips.

Beef was plentiful and cheap in San Antonio and other cattle towns. As chili spread east into areas where beef was more expensive, however, chili made with beans became more prevalent. In some eastern areas, this dish is referred to as chili beans while the term chili is reserved for the all-meat dish.[citation needed] Pinto beans are commonly used as chili beans, as are black-eyed peas, kidney beans, great northern beans, or navy beans. Chili bean can also refer to a small red variety of common bean also known as the pink bean. The name may have arisen from that bean's resemblance to small chili peppers, or it may be a reference to that bean's inclusion in chili recipes.

Most commercially prepared canned chili includes beans. Commercial chili prepared without beans is usually called ``Chili No Beans`` in the United States. Some U.S. manufacturers, notably Bush Brothers and Company and Eden Organic, also sell canned precooked beans (with no meat) that are labeled ``chili beans``. These beans are intended for consumers to add to a chili recipe and are often sold with spices added. A chili purist's proverb says ``If you know beans about chili, you know chili ain't got no beans,`` though the evidence suggests that there is nothing inauthentic about their inclusion. [8] The Chili Appreciation Society International specified in 1999 that, among other things, cooks are forbidden from including beans, marinating any meats, or discharging firearms in the preparation of chili for official competition.[9]

Pinto beans (frijoles), a staple of Tex-Mex cooking, have long been associated with chili. The question of whether beans ``belong`` in chili has been a matter of contention amongst chili cooks for an equally long time. It is likely that in many poorer areas of San Antonio and other places associated with the origins of chili, beans were used rather than meat, or in addition to meat.[citation needed]

Tomatoes

Tomatoes are another ingredient on which opinions differ. Wick Fowler, north Texas newspaperman and inventor of ``Two-Alarm Chili`` (which he later marketed as a ``kit`` of spices), insisted on adding tomato sauce to his chili — one 15-oz. can per three pounds of meat. He also believed that chili should never be eaten freshly cooked but refrigerated overnight to seal in the flavor. Matt Weinstock, a Los Angeles newspaper columnist, once remarked that Fowler's chili ``was reputed to open eighteen sinus cavities unknown to the medical profession.``[10]

Other Ingredients

Cooks may also include sweetcorn, peanut butter, pineapples, bananas, oranges, tomatillos, chorizo, cocoa, chocolate, coffee, tequila, cola, honey, cinnamon, allspice, saffron, molasses, vinegar, wine (usually red), beer, whiskey, bourbon, and/or others.[citation needed] Cornstarch is frequently used as a thickener, as is masa. Dark chocolate provides an authentic richness akin to that found in Mexican molé sauce (negro, rojo, or poblano varieties).[citation needed]

Accompaniments and additions

Several beverages are commonly used to accompany a bowl of chili, including ice-cold beer, cola to provide a sweet contrasting taste, or a glass of cold milk to moderate the impact of the pepper on the throat.[citation needed] The dish may be served with toppings or accompaniments of shredded cheese is a common topping, broken saltine crackers, commercial corn chips, Jalapeño cornbread, rolled-up corn tortillas, and pork tamales

Canned chili

Willie Gebhardt, originally of New Braunfels, Texas, and later of San Antonio, produced the first canned chili in 1908.[citation needed] Rancher Lyman Davis near Corsicana, Texas, developed Wolf Brand Chili in 1885. He owned a meat market and was a particular fan of Texas-style chili. In the 1880s, in partnership with an experienced range cook, he began producing heavily spiced chili based on chunks of lean beef and rendered beef suet, which he sold by the pot to local cafés. In 1921, Davis began canning his product, naming it for his pet wolf ``Kaiser Bill.`` Wolf Brand canned chili was a favorite of Will Rogers, who always took along a case when traveling and performing in other regions of the world. Ernest Tubb, the country singer, was such a fan that one Texas hotel maintained a supply of Wolf Brand for his visits. Both the Gebhardt and Wolf brands are now owned by ConAgra Foods, Inc. In the UK, the most popular brand of canned chili is sold by Stagg, a division of Hormel foods.

Another method of marketing commercial chili in the days before widespread home refrigerators was ``brick chili.`` It was produced by pressing out nearly all of the moisture, leaving a solid substance roughly the size and shape of a half-brick. Wolf Brand was originally sold in this form.[11] Commonly available in small towns and rural areas of the American Southwest in the first three-quarters of the 20th century,[citation needed] brick chili has mostly outlived its usefulness and is now difficult to find. In southern California, the Dolores Canning Co. still makes a traditional brick chili called the ``Dolores Chili Brick``.

Home cooks may also purchase seasoning kits for chili, including packets of dry ingredients such as chili powder, masa flour, salt, and cayenne pepper, to flavor meat and other ingredients.

Other dishes made with chili

A Detroit Coney Island hot dog with chili, onions, and mustard. A Chili Dog is a frankfurter served with a topping of chili. Chili cheese fries as served by The Hat. Chili is also added to fries and cheese to make ``chili cheese fries,`` or ``Coney Island fries.``[citation needed] In southeast Texas, some people eat chili served over white rice. Chili over rice (frequently with beans) is also common in Hawaii (where it is known as chili rice), France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Canada, Denmark, Sweden and, to some extent, Australia.[citation needed] ``Chili mac`` is a dish made with canned chili, or roughly the same ingredients as chili (meat, spices, onion, tomato sauce, beans, and sometimes other vegetables), with the addition of macaroni or some other pasta. Chili mac is a standard dish in the U.S. military and is one of the varieties of Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE).[citation needed] A ``Frito pie`` typically consists of a small, single-serving bag of Fritos corn chips with a cup of chili poured over the top, usually finished up with grated cheese or onions and jalapeños and sour cream.[12] Frito pies are popular in the southwestern United States. ``Nachos`` similarly are tortilla chips served with a little chili, and is commonly available in restaurants, bars and pubs across the United States and United Kingdom as a side dish or sharer plate, often with cheese, sour cream, guacamole, salsa and slices of pickled jalapeños.[citation needed] ``Chili, Chips, & Cheese`` is another popular variation that is served in school lunch programs in the United States and at home as a snack or meal. It is made exactly as the name would imply with chili and cheese (typically Cheddar or American) topped onto chips (typically corn tortilla chips).[citation needed] A ``chili stuffed baked potato`` (``chili stuffed spud``) is a large baked potato stuffed with chili and possibly with other ingredients, such as butter, Cheddar cheese, or chopped onions.[citation needed]

Notes

^ Jane Butel. ``Chili Madness: A Passionate CookBook``, 2008 ^ ``The History of Chili``, ChiliAddiction.com ^ ``The History of Chili``, Chili.com ^ ``History of Chili, Chili Con Carne``. whatscookingamerica.net. 2004. http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/Chili/ChiliHistory.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  ^ ``The First 100 Years``, Taylorschili.com ^ International Chili Society, Official History of Chili October 1, 1999 ^ ``Chili recipe``, LBJ Library, University of Texas ^ Albala, Ken. Beans: A History. Oxford:Berg, 2007 p. 178 ^ Chili Appreciation Society International, Official CASI Rules & Guidelines October 1, 1999 ^ Tolbert, A Bowl of Red ^ Handbook of Texas Online: Wolf Brand Chili ^ ``Austin City Limits Festival Food Rocks!``. Slashfood. 2007. http://www.slashfood.com/2007/09/26/austin-city-limits-festival-food-rocks/. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 

References

Frank X. Tolbert. A Bowl of Red: A Natural History of Chili con Carne. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966. [Much of the material in this book originally appeared in the author's newspaper columns in The Dallas Morning News beginning in the early 1950s.] Charles Ramsdell. San Antonio: An Historical and Pictorial Guide. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1959. Joe E. Cooper. With or Without Beans. Dallas: W. S. Henson, 1952. H. Allen Smith. ``Nobody Knows More About Chili Than I Do.`` Reprinted at the International Chili Society web site. Jack Arnold. The Chili Lover's Handbook. Privately published, 1977. Robb Walsh. The Tex-Mex Cookbook: A History in Recipes and Photos. New York: Broadway Books, 2004. [A very knowledgeable and very well-written ``food history``, including a long chapter on ``real`` chili, chili joints, and the San Antonio chili queens.] Fr. Michael Muller. The Catholic Dogma, 1888

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Chili con carne (category) Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on Cookbook:Chili con carne Chili Appreciation Society International International Chili Society Chili Recipes