Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Chocolate

Nutritional Information

1 oz, chocolate

  • Calories 152
  • Calories from Fat 75.69
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 8.41g13%
  • Saturated Fat 4.035g20%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 3.744g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.242g
  • Cholestreol 7mg2%
  • Sodium 22mg1%
  • Potassium 105mg3%
  • Total Carbohydrate 16.84g6%
  • Dietary Fiber 1g4%
  • Sugars 14.6g
  • Protein 2.17g4%
  • Calcium 5mg1%
  • Iron 4mg22%
  • Vitamin A 1%
  • Vitamin C 0%

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Chocolate on Wikipedia:

``Chocolates`` redirects here. For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration.

Chocolate (pronounced /ˈtʃɒklɪt/ (help·info) or /-ˈəlɪt/) comprises a number of raw and processed foods produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Mexico, Central and South America, with its earliest documented use around 1100 BC. The majority of the Mesoamerican peoples made chocolate beverages, including the Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl, a Nahuatl word meaning ``bitter water``. The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste, and must be fermented to develop the flavor.

After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted, and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. The nibs are then ground to cocoa mass, pure chocolate in rough form. Because this cocoa mass usually is liquefied then molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate (bitter chocolate) contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, combining cocoa solids, cocoa butter or other fat, and sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk but no cocoa solids (and thus does not qualify to be considered true chocolate).

Cocoa solids contain alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects on the body. It has been linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Some research found that chocolate, eaten in moderation, can lower blood pressure.[1] Dark chocolate has recently been promoted for its health benefits, including a substantial amount of antioxidants that reduce the formation of free radicals, although current scientific evidence is against health improvements by dietary antioxidants.[citation needed][dubious – discuss] The presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals,[2] especially dogs and cats.

Chocolate has become one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional on certain holidays: chocolate bunnies and eggs are popular on Easter, chocolate coins on Hanukkah, Santa Claus and other holiday symbols on Christmas, and hearts on colonial sources making this an unlikely derivation. Santamaria[5] gives a derivation from the Yucatec Maya word ``chokol`` meaning hot, and the Nahuatl ``atl`` meaning water. More recently Dakin and Wichmann derive it from another Nahuatl term, ``chicolatl`` from Eastern Nahuatl meaning ``beaten drink``.[6] They derive this term from the word for the frothing stick, ``chicoli``.

History

The word ``chocolate`` originates in Mexico's Aztec cuisine, derived from the Nahuatl word xocolatl. See also: History of chocolate

Theobroma cacao, native to Mexico, Central and South America, has been cultivated for at least three millennia in that region. Cocoa mass was used originally in Mesoamerica both as a beverage and as an ingredient in foods.

Chocolate has been used as a drink for nearly all of its history. The earliest record of using chocolate dates back before the Olmec. In November 2007, archaeologists reported finding evidence of the oldest known cultivation and use of cacao at a site in Puerto Escondido, Honduras, dating from about 1100 to 1400 BC.[7] The residues found and the kind of vessel they were found in indicate that the initial use of cacao was not simply as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was likely used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.[7] The Maya civilization grew cacao trees in their backyard,[8] and used the cacao seeds it produced to make a frothy, bitter drink.[9] Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated that chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life.[10] The chocolate residue found in an early ancient Maya pot in Río Azul, Guatemala, suggests that Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD. In the New World, chocolate was consumed in a bitter, spicy drink called xocoatl, and was often flavored with vanilla, chili pepper, and achiote (known today as annatto).[11] Xocoatl was believed to fight fatigue, a belief that is probably attributable to the theobromine content. Chocolate was also an important luxury good throughout pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and cacao beans were often used as currency.[12] For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost one hundred cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans.[13] South American and European cultures have used cocoa to treat diarrhea for hundreds of years.[14] All of the areas that were conquered by the Aztecs that grew cacao beans were ordered to pay them as a tax, or as the Aztecs called it, a ``tribute``.[15]

Until the 16th century, no European had ever heard of the popular drink from the Central and South American peoples.[16] It was not until the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs that chocolate could be imported to Europe. In Spain it quickly became a court favorite. In a century it had spread and become popular throughout the European continent[16] To keep up with the high demand for this new drink, Spanish armies began enslaving Mesoamericans to produce cacao.[17] Even with cacao harvesting becoming a regular business, only royalty and the well-connected could afford to drink this expensive import.[18] Before long, the Spanish began growing cacao beans on plantations, and using an African workforce to help manage them.[19] The situation was different in England. Put simply, anyone with money could buy it.[20] The first chocolate house opened in London in 1657.[20] In 1689, noted physician and collector Hans Sloane developed a milk chocolate drink in Jamaica which was initially used by apothecaries, but later sold to the Cadbury brothers in 1897.[21]

For hundreds of years, the chocolate making process remained unchanged. When the people saw the Industrial Revolution arrive, many changes occurred that brought about the food today in its modern form. A Dutch family's (van Houten) inventions made mass production of shiny, tasty chocolate bars and related products possible. In the 1700s, mechanical mills were created that squeezed out cocoa butter, which in turn helped to create hard, durable chocolate.[22] But, it was not until the arrival of the Industrial Revolution that these mills were put to bigger use. Not long after the revolution cooled down, companies began advertising this new invention to sell many of the chocolate treats we see today.[23] When new machines were produced, people began experiencing and consuming chocolate worldwide.[24]

Types

Main article: Types of chocolate A half beat of milk chocolate with salmiak filling by Fazer

Several types of chocolate can be distinguished. Pure, unsweetened chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, combining chocolate with sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. ``White chocolate`` contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk but no cocoa solids. Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have some physiological effects in humans, but the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, such as dogs and cats.[2] It has been linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Dark chocolate has been promoted[who?] for its health benefits, as it seems to possess substantial amount of antioxidants that reduce the formation of free radicals.

White chocolate is formed from a mixture of sugar, cocoa butter and milk solids. Although its texture is similar to milk and dark chocolate, it does not contain any cocoa solids. Because of this, many countries do not consider white chocolate as chocolate at all.[25] Although first introduced by Hebert Candies in 1955, Mars, Incorporated was the first to produce white chocolate within the United States. Because it does not contain any cocoa solids, white chocolate does not contain any theobromine, meaning it can be consumed by animals.

Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture. The U.S. Government calls this ``sweet chocolate``, and requires a 15% concentration of chocolate liquor. European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids.[26] Dark chocolate, with its high cocoa content, is a rich source of the flavonoids epicatechin and gallic acid, which are thought to possess cardioprotective properties. Dark chocolate has also been said to reduce the possibility of a heart attack when consumed regularly in small amounts.[27] Semisweet chocolate is a dark chocolate with a low sugar content. Bittersweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which some sugar (typically a third), more cocoa butter, vanilla and sometimes lecithin have been added. It has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable in baking.

Unsweetened chocolate is pure chocolate liquor, also known as bitter or baking chocolate. It is unadulterated chocolate: the pure, ground, roasted chocolate beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor.

Production

See also: Children in cocoa production Chocolate is created from the cocoa bean. A cacao tree with fruit pods in various stages of ripening

Roughly two-thirds of the entire world's cocoa is produced in Western Africa, with 43% sourced from