Food Guts - Ingredient Information

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Coffee

Nutritional Information

1 fl oz, coffee

  • Calories 0
  • Calories from Fat 0.09
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.01g0%
  • Saturated Fat 0.001g0%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.004g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 1mg0%
  • Potassium 14mg0%
  • Total Carbohydrate 0.01g0%
  • Dietary Fiber 0g0%
  • Sugars 0g
  • Protein 0.04g0%
  • Calcium 0mg0%
  • Iron 0mg0%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 0%

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Coffee on Wikipedia:

This article is about the beverage. For the bean, see coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). Coffee A cup of coffee Type Hot or cold beverage Country of origin Ethiopia and Yemen Introduced Approx. 15th century (beverage) Color Dark brown/Black

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee can have a stimulating effect in humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.[2]

It is thought that the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant was first recognized in Yemen in Arabia and the north east of Ethiopia, and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world.[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.[3] From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.[4] Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons,[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.

Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the hardier Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta). The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Both are cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.

An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004,[7] and in 2005, it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed.[9] However, the method of brewing coffee has been found to be important.[10]

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Etymology

The first reference to ``coffee`` in the English language, in the form chaoua, dates to 1598. In English and other European languages, coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahveh, via the Italian caffè. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: قهوة‎‎, qahwah. Arab lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine, and gave its etymology, in turn, to the verb qahiya, signifying ``to have no appetite``,[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source, suggesting Kaffa, the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one, since the plant is indigenous to that area.[11][12] Instead, the term qahwah is not given to the berry or plant locally there, which is called bunn, the native name in Shoa being būn.'[11]

Biology

Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds

Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and C. arabica.[13] Coffea arabica, the original and most highly regarded species, is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya.[14] C. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa, from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan.[15]

Less popular species are C. liberica, excelsa, stenophylla, mauritiana, and racemosa. They are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 cm (4–6 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) wide. Clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1.5 cm.[16] Green when immature, they ripen to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries[17] have only one; these are called peaberries.[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months.

Cultivation

Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. A more effective method of growing coffee, used in Brazil, is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years of cultivation.[16]

Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica

Of the two main species grown, arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta coffee (from C. canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica.[13] However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. arabica will not thrive. The Robusta strain was first collected in 1890 from the Lomani, a tributary of the Congo River, and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900. From Java, further breeding resulted in the establishment of Robusta plantations in many countries.[19] In particular, the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), to which C. arabica is vulnerable, hastened the uptake of the resistant Robusta. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee.[20]

Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50% more caffeine than arabica.[21] For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head, a full-bodied result, and to lower the ingredient cost.[22] The species Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca are believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively.[21]

Most arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.[13] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, or acidity.[23] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.[24] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java or Kona.

Production

Brazil is the world leader in production of green coffee, followed by Vietnam and Colombia,[25] the last of which produces a much softer coffee.[citation needed]

Top twenty green coffee producers â€” Tonnes (2007) and Bags thousands (2007) Country Tonnes[ref 1] Bags thousands[ref 2]  Brazil 2,249,010 36,070  Vietnam 961,200 16,467  Colombia 697,377 12,515  Indonesia 676,475 7,751  Ethiopia[note 1] 325,800 4,906  India 288,000 4,148  Mexico 268,565 4,150  Guatemala[note 1] 252,000 4,100  Peru 225,992 2,953  Honduras 217,951 3,842