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Nutritional Information

1 frozen, croissants

  • Calories 171
  • Calories from Fat 79.38
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 8.82g14%
  • Saturated Fat 4.897g24%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 2.32g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.459g
  • Cholestreol 28mg9%
  • Sodium 312mg13%
  • Potassium 50mg1%
  • Total Carbohydrate 19.24g6%
  • Dietary Fiber 1.1g4%
  • Sugars 4.73g
  • Protein 3.44g7%
  • Calcium 2mg0%
  • Iron 5mg28%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 0%

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Croissants on Wikipedia:

A croissant A ham and cheese croissant

A croissant (French pronunciation: [kʁwasɑ̃]  ( listen), anglicised variously as /krəˈsɑːnt/, /kwɑːˈsɑːn/, etc.) is a buttery flaky pastry, named for its distinctive crescent shape. It is also sometimes called a crescent[1] or crescent roll.[2] Croissants are made of a leavened variant of puff pastry. The yeast dough is layered with butter, rolled and folded several times in succession, then rolled into a sheet, a technique called laminating.

Crescent-shaped breads have been made since the Middle Ages, and crescent-shaped cakes (imitating the often-worshiped Moon) possibly since classical times.[3] Making croissant by hand requires skill and patience; a batch of croissants can take several days to complete. However, the development of factory-made, frozen, pre-formed but unbaked dough has made them into a fast food which can be freshly baked by unskilled labor. Indeed, the croissanterie was explicitly a French response to American-style fast food.[citation needed] This innovation, along with the croissant's versatility and distinctive shape, has made it the best-known type of French pastry in much of the world. In many parts of the United States, for example, the croissant has come to rival the long-time favorite doughnuts.[citation needed]



A croissant rising from unbaked dough

The kipferl - ancestor of the croissant - has been documented in Austria going back at least as far as the 13th century, in various shapes [4]. The kipferl can be made plain or with nut or other fillings (some consider the rugelach a form of kipferl [5]).

The ``birth`` of the croissant itself - that is, its adaptation from the plainer form of kipfel, before its subsequent evolution (to a puff pastry) - can be dated with some precision to at latest 1839 (some say 1838), when an Austrian artillery officer, August Zang, founded a Viennese Bakery (``Boulangerie Viennoise``) at 92, rue de Richelieu in Paris.[6] This bakery, which served Viennese specialties including the kipfel and the Vienna loaf, quickly became popular and inspired French imitators (and the concept, if not the term, viennoiserie, a 20th century term for supposedly Vienna-style pastries). The French version of the kipferl was named for its crescent (croissant) shape.

A Kipferl: precursor to the Croissant

Alan Davidson, editor of the Oxford Companion to Food, found no printed recipe for the present-day croissant in any French recipe book before the early 20th century; the earliest French reference to a croissant he found was among the ``fantasy or luxury breads`` in Payen's Des substances alimentaires, 1853. However, early recipes for the croissant (without butter, and so not puff pastry-based) can be found in the nineteenth century and at least one reference to croissants as an established French bread appeared as early as 1850 (in Académie d'agriculture de France, Mémoires (Paris: Bouchard-Huzard, 1850) First Part, p. 588).

August Zang himself returned to Austria in 1848 to become a press magnate, but the bakery remained popular for some time after, and was mentioned in several works of the time: ``This same M. Zank [sic]...founded around 1830 [sic], in Paris, the famous Boulangerie viennoise`` [7]. Several sources refer to the superiority of this bakery's products: ``Paris is of exquisite delicacy; and, in particular, the succulent products of the Boulangerie Viennoise``[8]; ``which seemed to us as fine as if it came from the Viennese bakery on the rue de Richelieu``[9].

By 1869, the croissant was well-established enough to be mentioned as a breakfast staple [10] and in 1872, Charles Dickens wrote (in his periodical ``All the Year Round``) of:

the workman's pain de ménage and the soldier's pain de munition, to the dainty croissant on the boudoir table [11]

The puff pastry used to make the modern croissant was already mentioned in the late 17th century, when La Varenne's ``Le cuisinier français`` gave a recipe for it in the 1680 - and possibly earlier - editions. It was typically used, not on its own, but for shells holding other ingredients (as in a vol-au-vent). But it does not appear to be mentioned in relation to the croissant until the twentieth century.

Origin stories

Fanciful stories of how the kipfel - and so, ultimately, the croissant - was created are culinary legends, at least one going back to the 19th century [12]. These include tales that it was invented in Europe to celebrate the defeat of a Muslim invasion at the decisive Battle of Tours by the Franks in 732, with the shape representing the Islamic crescent;[13] that it was invented in Vienna, Austria in 1683 to celebrate the defeat of the Turks to Polish forces in the Turkish siege of the city, as a reference to the crescents on the Turkish flags, when bakers staying up all night heard the tunneling operation and gave the alarm; tales linking croissants with the kifli and the siege of Buda in 1686; and those detailing Marie Antoinette's hankering after a Polish specialty.

Several points argue against the connection to the Turkish invasion or to Marie-Antoinette: saving the city from the Turks would have been a major event, yet the incident seems to be only referenced by food writers (writing well after the event), and Marie-Antoinette - a closely watched monarch, with a great influence on fashion - could hardly have introduced a unique foodstuff without writers of the period having commented on it.[original research?] Those who claim a connection never quote any such contemporary source; nor does an aristocratic writer, writing in 1799, mention the pastry in a long and extensive list of breakfast foods.[14]

The fact that these stories have long been disproved does not prevent reputable companies from repeating them on their sites.[15] Despite increasing scholarship in cultural history in general and in food history in particular, these myths are still found far more frequently than the documented versions.


Lye croissants in Southern Germany

Croissant pastry can also be wrapped around any praline, almond paste or chocolate before it is baked (in the last case, it becomes like pain au chocolat, which has a different, non-crescent, shape), or sliced to admit sweet or savoury fillings. In France and Spain, croissants are generally sold without filling and eaten without added butter, but sometimes with almond filling. In the United States, sweet fillings or toppings are common, and warm croissants may be filled with ham and cheese or feta cheese and spinach. In the Levant, croissants are sold plain or filled with chocolate, cheese, almonds, or zaatar. In Germany, croissants are sometimes filled with Nutella or persipan; in Southern Germany there also is a popular variety of a croissant glazed with lye (``Laugencroissant``). In Switzerland the croissant is typically called a Gipfeli which typically has a crisper crust and is less buttery than the French style croissant. In some Latin American countries, croissants are commonly served alongside coffee as a breakfast or merienda. These croissant are referred to as medialunas (``half moons``) and are typically coated with a sweet glaze (``de manteca``, made with butter). Another variant is a medialuna ``de grasa`` (``of lard``), which is not sweet.

Spread of the Croissant

Historically, the croissant was not commonplace in the UK. Although available in speciality places, it was only in the late 1980s that supermarkets started stocking them and then in the late 1990s with the growth of cafe culture did the croissant spread.[citation needed]

Croissant are also seen in former French colonies such as Morocco.

See also

de:wikipedia ``Kipferl`` Baguette Brioche Rogalik


^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. crescent. ^ Williamson, Charles Norris. Rosemary: A Christmas Story. A. L. Burt. p. 43. ``On a small table at her side a tray had been left, with the remains of dejeuner; a jug stained brown with streaks of coffee; a crumbled crescent roll...``  ^ ``Qu'est-ce que la Bible? d'après la nouvelle philosophie allemande``, translated by August Hermann Ewerbeck. 1850. p. 327. ``Hebrew women, in the time of Jeremiah, made in honor of the pagan goddess Astarte (queen of heaven, queen of the moon) cakes, probably in the form of a crescent.``  ^ [ Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm 11] ^ ^ The 1839 date, and most of what follows, is documented in Jim Chevallier, ``August Zang and the French Croissant: How Viennoiserie Came to France``, p. 3-30; for the 1838 date, see Giles MacDonogh ``Reflections on the Third Meditation of La Physiologie du goût and Slow Food`` (p. 8); an Austrian PowerPoint - Ess-Stile - gives the date of 1840 (slide 46). ^ ``Revue Moderne`` or ``Revue Germanique``, 1861, p. 80 ^ Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, 1847, p. 254. ^ Théophile Gautier, ``Voyage en Russie``, Charpentier, 1867, p.188 ^ ``Nouvelle revue théologique``, Casterman, 1869, p. 161 ^ ``The Cupboard papers: VIII. The Sweet Art``, November 30, 1872 ^ Karl August Schimmer, The Sieges of Vienna by the Turks: Translated from the German of Karl August Schimmer and Others, trans. Earl of Francis Egerton Ellesmere (London: John Murray, 1879), p. 30-31 ^ ``Gastronomic curiosities`` (in portuguese). Editora Abril. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ Mme. de Genlis, ``Manuel de Voyage``, Berlin, P. T. de Lagarde, 1799, pp. 54-56. ^ title=Cuisine de France - Facts About Our Products


Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Croissant Look up croissant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. v â€¢ d â€¢ e Baked goods depicting religious iconography Croissant Â· OpÅ‚atek Â· Sacramental bread Â· Prosphora Â· Hot cross bun Â· Pretzel