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Grapefruit

When In Season:

    California (Northern): January (early) - April (late), September (early) - December (late)
    California (Southern): January (early) - November (late)
    Florida: January (early) - July (late), October (early) - December (late)
    Louisiana: September (late) - December (early)
    Texas: January (early) - May (late), October (early) - December (late)

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Grapefruit on Wikipedia:

This article is about the citrus fruit. For the Sixties pop band, see Grapefruit (band). Look up grapefruit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Grapefruit Grapefruit, hybrid citrus. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Rutaceae Genus: Citrus Species: C. × paradisi Binomial name Citrus × paradisi Macfad.

The grapefruit is a subtropical citrus tree known for its bitter fruit, an 18th-century hybrid first bred in Jamaica.[1] When found in Barbados it was named the ``forbidden fruit``;[2] it is also called the ``shaddock``, after its creator.

These evergreen trees are usually found at around 5–6 metres (16–20 ft) tall, although they can reach 13–15 metres (43–49 ft). The leaves are dark green, long (up to 150 mm, or 6 inches) and thin. It produces 5 cm (2 in) white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and largely oblate, and ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm. The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness. The 1929 US Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.[3]

The fruit has only become popular from the late 19th century; before that it was only grown as an ornamental plant. The US quickly became a major producer of the fruit, with orchards in Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California. In Spanish, the fruit is known as toronja or pomelo.

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History

One ancestor was the Jamaican sweet orange (Citrus sinensis); the other was the Indonesian pomelo (Citrus maxima). Captain Shaddock brought pomelo seeds to Jamaica and bred the first fruit.[1]

The hybrid fruit was in 1750 documented by the Rev. Griffith Hughes describing specimens from Barbados.[4] Currently, the grapefruit is said to be one of the ``Seven Wonders of Barbados.``[5] It was brought to Florida by Count Odette Philippe in 1823 in what is now known as Safety Harbor. Further crosses have produced the tangelo (1905), the minneola (1931), and the sweetie (1984). The sweetie has very small genetic and other differences from pomelo.

The grapefruit was known as the shaddock or shattuck until the 1800s. Its current name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree, which often appear similar to grapes.[6] Botanically, it was not distinguished from the pomelo until the 1830s, when it was given the name Citrus paradisi. Its true origins were not determined until the 1940s. This led to the official name being altered to Citrus × paradisi.[7][8]

The 1929 Ruby Red patent was associated with real commercial success, which came after the discovery of a red grapefruit growing on a pink variety. Only with the introduction of the Ruby Red did the grapefruit transform into a real agricultural success. The Red grapefruit, starting with the Ruby Red, has even become a symbolic fruit of Texas, where white ``inferior`` grapefruit were eliminated and only red grapefruit were grown for decades. Using radiation to trigger mutations, new varieties were developed to retain the red tones which typically faded to pink,[9] the Rio Red variety is the current (2007) Texas grapefruit with registered trademarks Rio Star and Ruby-Sweet, also sometimes promoted as ``Reddest`` and ``Texas Choice``.

The Florida Department of Citrus stated ``the primary varieties of Florida grapefruit are Ruby Red, Pink, Thompson, Marsh and Duncan. The fresh grapefruit season typically runs from October through June.``[1]

Production

The United States of America is the top producer of grapefruit and pomelo followed by China and South Africa.

Grapefruit and pomelo output in 2005 Top ten grapefruit (inc. pomelos) Producers — 2007 Country Production (Tonnes) Footnote  United States 1580000