Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Kale

Nutritional Information

1 cup chopped, kale

  • Calories 34
  • Calories from Fat 4.23
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.47g1%
  • Saturated Fat 0.061g0%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.035g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.226g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 29mg1%
  • Potassium 299mg9%
  • Total Carbohydrate 6.71g2%
  • Dietary Fiber 1.3g5%
  • Sugars 0g
  • Protein 2.21g4%
  • Calcium 9mg1%
  • Iron 6mg33%
  • Vitamin A 206%
  • Vitamin C 134%

When In Season:

    California (Northern): January (early) - December (late)
    California (Southern): January (early) - December (late)
    Iowa: September (early) - December (late)
    Kansas: October (early) - October (late)
    Louisiana: June (late) - December (early)
    Minnesota: January (early) - June (late), October (early) - December (late)
    New Hampshire: July (early) - November (late)
    North Dakota: July (early) - September (late)
    Rhode Island: January (early) - December (late)
    Tennessee: May (early) - June (late), September (late) - November (late)
    Vermont: July (early) - November (late)
    Washington: June (early) - November (late)

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Kale on Wikipedia:

For other meanings, see Kale (disambiguation). Kale Curly kale Species Brassica oleracea Cultivar Group Acephala Group Origin Unknown, before the Middle Ages Cultivar Group members Many, and some are known by other names.

Kale or borecole is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green or purple, in which the central leaves do not form a head. It is considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most domesticated forms. The species Brassica oleracea contains a wide array of vegetables including broccoli, cauliflower, collard greens, and brussels sprouts. The Cultivar Group Acephala also includes spring greens and collard greens, which are extremely similar genetically.

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Name

The name borecole most likely originates from the Dutch boerenkool (farmers cabbage).

Cultivation

The most important growing areas lie in central and northern Europe and North America. Kale grows more rarely in tropical areas as it prefers cooler climates, and here they often come in exotic colours. Kale is the most robust cabbage type – indeed the hardiness of kale is unmatched by any other vegetable. Kale will also tolerate nearly all soils provided that drainage is satisfactory. Another advantage is that kale rarely suffers from pests and diseases of other members of the cabbage family – pigeons, club root, and cabbage root fly (Delia radicum). Places where kale grows are called kalefields.

Kale may be the result of artificial selection for enlargement of leaves in some plant of the cabbage family, either wild or already being cultivated.

In the UK, the kale season usually finishes by the mid to end of April each year and it is then not available until the end of June to early July. However a variety of curly leafed green kale has recently been developed that is ready in the traditional off-season.[1]

Kale, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 117 kJ (28 kcal) Carbohydrates 5.63 g Sugars 1.25 g Dietary fiber 2.0 g Fat 0.4 g Protein 1.9 g Vitamin A equiv. 681 μg (76%) - beta-carotene 8173 μg (76%) - lutein and zeaxanthin 18246 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.053 mg (4%) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.07 mg (5%) Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.5 mg (3%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.049 mg (1%) Vitamin B6 0.138 mg (11%) Folate (Vit. B9) 13 μg (3%) Vitamin C 41.0 mg (68%) Vitamin K 817 μg (778%) Calcium 72.0 mg (7%) Iron 0.9 mg (7%) Magnesium 18 mg (5%) Phosphorus 28 mg (4%) Potassium 228 mg (5%) Zinc 0.24 mg (2%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database Freshly picked Siberian kale Lacinato kale (left) with collard greens (right)

Nutritional value

Kale is considered to be a highly nutritious vegetable with powerful antioxidant properties; kale is considered to be anti-inflammatory.[2]

Kale is very high in beta carotene, vitamin K, vitamin C, lutein, zeaxanthin, and reasonably rich in calcium. Because of its high vitamin K content, patients taking anti-coagulants such as warfarin are encouraged to avoid this food since it increases the vitamin K concentration in the blood, which is what the drugs are often attempting to lower.

Kale, as with broccoli and other brassicas, contains sulforaphane (particularly when chopped or minced), a chemical believed to have potent anti-cancer properties.[3]

Origins

Until the end of the Middle Ages, kale was one of the most common green vegetables in all of Europe. Curly leafed varieties of cabbage already existed along with flat leafed varieties in Greece in the fourth century BC. These forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. Today one may differentiate between varieties according to the low, intermediate, or high length of the stem, with varying leaf types. The leaf colours range from light green through green, dark green and violet-green to violet-brown. Russian kale was introduced into Canada (and then into the U.S.) by Russian traders in the 19th century.

During World War II, the cultivation of kale in the U.K. was encouraged by the Dig for Victory campaign. The vegetable was easy to grow and provided important nutrients to supplement those missing from a normal diet because of rationing.[4]

Kai-lan, a separate cultivar of Brassica oleracea much used in Chinese cuisine, is somewhat similar to kale in appearance and is occasionally called ``kale`` in English.

Cultivars

Kale Lutes can be classified by leaf type:

Curly leaved (Scots Kale Lutes) Plain leaved Rape Kale Lutes Leaf and spear (a cross between curly leaved and plain leaved Kale Lutes) Cavolo nero (also known as black cabbage, Tuscan Kale Lutes, Lacinato and dinosaur Kale Lutes)

Because Kale Lutes can grow well into winter, one variety of Rape Kale Lutes is called 'Hungry Gap', named after the period in winter in traditional agriculture when little could be harvested.

Culinary uses

Steamed kale and slivered almonds

Kale freezes well and actually tastes sweeter and more flavorful after being exposed to a frost.

Tender kale greens can provide an intense addition to salads, particularly when combined with other such strongly-flavored ingredients as dry-roasted peanuts, tamari-roasted almonds, red pepper flakes, or an Asian-style dressing.

In the Netherlands it is very frequently used in the winter dish stamppot and seen as one of the country's traditional dishes, called Boerenkool.

In Ireland kale is mixed with mashed potatoes to make the traditional dish colcannon. Although colcannon is rarely eaten in modern Ireland, it is still popular on Halloween when it is served with sausages. Small coins are often hidden inside as prizes.

A traditional Portuguese soup, caldo verde, combines pureed potatoes, diced kale, olive oil, broth, and, generally, sliced cooked spicy sausage. Under the name of couve, kale is also popular in Brazil, in caldo verde, or as a vegetable dish, often cooked with carne seca (shredded dried beef). When chopped and stir-fried, couve accompanies Brazil's national dish, feijoada.

In East Africa, it is an essential ingredient in making a stew for ugali, which is almost always eaten with kale. Kale is also eaten throughout southeastern Africa, where it is typically boiled with coconut milk and ground peanuts and is served with rice or boiled cornmeal.

A whole culture around kale has developed in north-western Germany around the towns of Bremen, Oldenburg and Hannover as well as in the State of Schleswig-Holstein. There, most social clubs of any kind will have a Grünkohlfahrt (``kale tour``) sometime between October and February, visiting a country inn to consume large quantities of boiled kale, Kassler, Mettwurst and schnapps. These tours are often combined with a game of Boßeln. Most communities in the area have a yearly kale festival which includes naming a ``kale king`` (or queen).

Curly kale is used in Denmark and Halland, Sweden, to make (grøn-)langkål, an obligatory dish on the julbord in the region, and is commonly served together with the Christmas ham (Sweden, Halland). The kale is used to make a stew of minced boiled kale, stock, cream, pepper and salt that is simmered together slowly for a few hours. In Scotland, kale provided such a base for a traditional diet that the word in dialect Scots is synonymous with food. To be ``off one's kail`` is to feel too ill to eat.

Kale is a very good source of iron, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin K and Carotenoids (which provide vitamin A). In Japan, kale juice (known as aojiru) is a popular dietary supplement.

Decorative uses

Ornamental kale in bloom

Many varieties of kale are referred to as ``flowering kales`` and are grown mainly for their ornamental leaves, which are brilliant white, red, pink, lavender, blue or violet in the interior or the rosette. Most plants sold as ``ornamental cabbage`` are in fact kales. Ornamental kale is as edible as any other variety, provided it has not been treated with pesticides or other harmful chemicals.[5]

When uncooked, standard Kale is a popular garnish.

Literature

The Kailyard school of Scottish writers, which included J. M. Barrie (creator of Peter Pan), consisted of authors who wrote about traditional rural Scottish life (kailyard = kale field).

See also