Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Lettuce

Nutritional Information

1 cup shredded or chopped, lettuce

  • Calories 8
  • Calories from Fat 0.72
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.08g0%
  • Saturated Fat 0.01g0%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.003g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.041g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 6mg0%
  • Potassium 78mg2%
  • Total Carbohydrate 1.63g1%
  • Dietary Fiber 0.7g3%
  • Sugars 0.97g
  • Protein 0.5g1%
  • Calcium 1mg0%
  • Iron 1mg6%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 2%

When In Season:

    Alaska: June (late) - September (late)
    California (Northern): January (early) - December (late)
    California (Southern): February (early) - December (late)
    Colorado: June (early) - October (late)
    Connecticut: May (early) - October (late)
    Illinois: April (early) - June (late), August (early) - October (late)
    Iowa: January (early) - July (late), September (early) - December (late)
    Kansas: April (late) - June (early), September (late) - October (late)
    Louisiana: June (late) - December (early)
    Massachusetts: June (early) - October (late)
    Minnesota: April (early) - December (late)
    Mississippi: March (late) - May (late)
    Missouri: April (early) - June (late), September (early) - November (late)
    New Jersey: May (late) - November (late)
    New Mexico (North/Central/East): January (early) - December (late)
    New Mexico (Southern): January (early) - June (late), September (early) - December (late)
    New York: July (early) - October (late)
    North Dakota: July (early) - September (late)
    Oklahoma: March (early) - July (late), October (early) - October (late)
    Pennsylvania: January (early) - December (late)
    Rhode Island: April (early) - November (early)
    Tennessee: May (early) - June (late)
    Texas: May (early) - June (late)
    Washington: April (early) - November (late)

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Lettuce on Wikipedia:

Lettuce Iceberg lettuce field in Northern Santa Barbara County Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Asterales Family: Asteraceae Genus: Lactuca Species: L. sativa Binomial name Lactuca sativa L. Lettuce (butterhead) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 55 kJ (13 kcal) Carbohydrates 2.2 g Dietary fibre 1.1 g Fat 0.2 g Protein 1.4 g Water 96 g Vitamin A equiv. 166 μg (18%) Folate (Vit. B9) 73 μg (18%) Vitamin C 4 mg (7%) Vitamin K 24 μg (23%) Iron 1.2 mg (10%) Vit. K[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a temperate annual or biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable. In many countries, it is typically eaten cold, raw, in salads, sandwiches, hamburgers, tacos, and in many other dishes. In some places, including China, lettuce is typically eaten cooked and use of the stem is as important as use of the leaf. Both the English name and the Latin name of the genus are ultimately derived from lac, the Latin word for “milk”,[2] referring to the plant’s milky juice. Mild in flavour, it has been described over the centuries as a cooling counterbalance to other ingredients in a salad.[3]

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Description

The lettuce plant has a short stem initially (a rosette growth habit), but when it gradually blooms, the stem and branches lengthens; and produces many flower heads that look like those of dandelions, but smaller. This is referred to as bolting. When grown to eat, lettuce is harvested before it bolts. Lettuce is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera.

Cultivation

Lettuce is grown commercially worldwide, hardy to Zone 6,[4] requiring light, sandy, humus rich, moist soil.[4] Dry conditions can cause the plants to go to seed (known as bolting). It is normally grown by early and late sowing in sunny positions, or summer crops in shade[4].

History

The earliest depiction of lettuce is in the carvings at the temple of Senusret I at Karnak, where he offers milk to the god Min, to whom the lettuce was sacred. Lettuce was considered an aphrodisiac food in Ancient Egypt, and appears as such in The Contendings of Horus and Seth. Later, Ancient Greek physicians believed lettuce could act as a sleep-inducing agent. The Romans cultivated it, and it eventually made its way to the Papal Court at Avignon, France.[5] Christopher Columbus introduced lettuce to the New World.[6][unreliable source?]

Cultivars

Lettuce and chicory output in 2005

There are six commonly recognised Cultivar Groups of lettuce which are ordered here by head formation and leaf structure; there are hundreds of cultivars of lettuce selected for leaf shape and colour, as well as extended field and shelf life, within each of these Cultivar Groups:

Butterhead forms loose heads. Its leaves have a buttery texture. Butterhead cultivars are most popular in Europe. Popular varieties include Boston, Bibb, Buttercrunch, and Tom Thumb. Chinese lettuce types generally have long, sword-shaped, non-head-forming leaves, with a bitter and robust flavour unlike Western types, for use in stir-fried dishes and stews. Chinese lettuce cultivars are divided into “stem-use” types (called celtuce in English), and “leaf-use” types such as youmaicai (Chinese: 油麦菜; pinyin: yóumàicài) or shengcai (生菜). Crisphead, also called Iceberg, forms tight, dense heads that resemble cabbage. They are generally the mildest of the lettuces, valued more for their crunchy texture than for flavour. Cultivars of iceberg lettuce are the most familiar lettuces in the USA. The name Iceberg refers to the crisp, cold, clean characteristics of the leaves. Looseleaf has tender, delicate, and mildly flavoured leaves. This group includes oak leaf and lollo rosso lettuces. Romaine, also called Cos, grows in a long head of sturdy leaves with a firm rib down the center. Unlike most lettuces, it is tolerant of heat. Summer Crisp, also called Batavian, forms moderately dense heads with a crunchy texture. This type is intermediate between iceberg and looseleaf types.

Some lettuces (especially iceberg) have been specifically bred to remove the bitterness from their leaves. These lettuces have a high water content with very little nutrient value. The more bitter lettuces and the ones with pigmented leaves contain antioxidants.[citation needed]

Some lettuce cultivars

A Romaine lettuce

Chemical compounds which occur in lettuce: 1: α-Lactucerol (=Taraxasterol); 2: β-Lactucerol (=Lactucon, Lactucerin); 3: Lactucin; 4: Lactucopicrin.

More lettuce cultivars

Breeding

L. sativa can easily be bred with closely related species in Lactuca such as L. serriola, L. saligna, and L. virosa, and breeding programs for cultivated lettuce have included those species to broaden the available gene pool. Starting in the 1990s, such programs began to include more distantly related species such as L. tatarica.[7]

Production

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that world production of lettuce and chicory for calendar year 2007 was 23.55 million tons, primarily coming from China (51%), United States (22%) and Spain (5%).

Top ten lettuce and chicory producers — 2007 Country Production (tonnes) Source