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Macadamia Nuts

Nutritional Information

1 cup whole or halved, macadamia nuts

  • Calories 962
  • Calories from Fat 913.77
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 101.53g156%
  • Saturated Fat 16.162g81%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 78.895g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 2.013g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 7mg0%
  • Potassium 493mg14%
  • Total Carbohydrate 18.52g6%
  • Dietary Fiber 11.5g46%
  • Sugars 6.12g
  • Protein 10.6g21%
  • Calcium 11mg1%
  • Iron 27mg150%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 3%

Macadamia Nuts on Wikipedia:

Macadamia Macadamia integrifolia foliage and nuts Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Proteales Family: Proteaceae Genus: Macadamia F.Muell. Species

Macadamia claudiensis Macadamia grandis Macadamia hildebrandii Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia jansenii Macadamia ternifolia Macadamia tetraphylla Macadamia whelanii Macadamia neurophylla

Macadamia is a genus of nine species of flowering plants in the family Proteaceae, with a disjunct distribution native to eastern Australia (seven species), New Caledonia (one species M. neurophylla) and Sulawesi in Indonesia (one species, M. hildebrandii).

They are small to large evergreen trees growing to 2–12 m tall. The leaves are arranged in whorls of three to six, lanceolate to obovate or elliptical in shape, 6–30 cm long and 2–13 cm broad, with an entire or spiny-serrated margin. The flowers are produced in a long slender simple raceme 5–30 cm long, the individual flowers 10–15 mm long, white to pink or purple, with four tepals. The fruit is a very hard woody globose follicle with a pointed apex, containing one or two seeds.

The genus is named after John Macadam, a colleague of botanist Ferdinand von Mueller, who first described the genus.[1] Common names include Macadamia, Macadamia nut, Queensland nut, Bush nut, Maroochi nut, Queen of Nuts and bauple nut; Indigenous Australian names include gyndl, jindilli, and boombera.

Macadamia nut in its shell and a roasted nut //

Production

The nuts are a valuable food crop. Only two of the species, Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla, are of commercial importance. The remainder of the genus possess poisonous and/or inedible nuts, such as M. whelanii and M. ternifolia; the toxicity is due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides. These glycosides can be removed by prolonged leaching, a practice carried out by some Indigenous Australian people in order to use these species as well.

The two species of edible macadamia readily hybridize, and M. tetraphylla is threatened in the wild due to this. Wild nut trees were originally found at Mount Bauple near Maryborough in southeast Queensland, Australia. Locals in this area still refer to them as ``Bauple nuts``. The macadamia nut is the only plant food native to Australia that is produced and exported in any significant quantity.[citation needed]

The first commercial orchard of macadamia trees was planted in the early 1880s by Charles Staff at Rous Mill, 12 km southeast of Lismore, New South Wales, consisting of M. tetraphylla.[2] Besides the development of a small boutique industry in Australia during the late 19th and early 20th century, macadamia was extensively planted as a commercial crop in Hawaii from the 1920s. Macadamia seeds were first imported into Hawaii in 1882 by William H. Purvis. The young manager of the Pacific Sugar Mill at Kukuihaele on the Big Island, planted seed nuts that year at Kapulena.[3]

The Hawaiian-produced macadamia established the nut internationally. However, in 2006, macadamia production began to fall in Hawaii, due to lower prices from an over-supply.[4]

Outside of Hawaii and Australia, macadamia is also commercially produced in South Africa, Brazil, California, Costa Rica, Israel, Kenya, Bolivia, New Zealand, Colombia and Malawi. Australia is now the world's largest commercial producer - at approximately 40,000 tonnes of nut in shell per year, with a total global production of 100,000 tonnes.

Chocolate-covered macadamia nuts

Nutritional qualities

Macadamias are highly nutritious nuts. They have the highest amount of beneficial monounsaturated fats of any known nut. They also contain 9% protein, 9% carbohydrate, 2% dietary fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, selenium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin.[5]

Raw Macadamia kernel, per 100 grams Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 3,080 kJ (740 kcal) Carbohydrates 7.9 g Fat 74.0 g *Saturated fat: 10.0 g *Monounsaturated fat: 60 g *Polyunsaturated fat: 4.0 g Protein 9.2 g Vitamin B6 0 mg (0%) Vitamin C 0 mg (0%) Vitamin E 4 mg (27%) Calcium 64 mg (6%) Iron 2 mg (16%) Magnesium 0 mg (0%) Phosphorus 241 mg (34%) Potassium 410 mg (9%) Zinc 0 mg (0%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database

Skincare

Macadamia oil is prized for containing approximately 22% of the Omega-7 palmitoleic acid,[6] which makes it a botanical alternative to mink oil, which contains approximately 17%. This relatively high content of ``cushiony`` palmitoleic acid plus macadamia's high oxidative stability make it a desirable ingredient in cosmetics, especially skincare.

Cultivation and processing

Macadamia integrifolia flowers

The macadamia tree is usually propagated by grafting, and does not begin to produce commercial quantities of nuts until it is 7–10 years old, but once established, may continue bearing for over 100 years. Macadamias prefer fertile, well-drained soils, a rainfall of 1,000–2,000 mm, and temperatures not falling below 10 °C (although once established they can withstand light frosts), with an optimum temperature of 25 °C. The roots are shallow and trees can be blown down in storms; they are also susceptible to Phytophthora root disease.

The macadamia nut has an extremely hard shell, but can be cracked using a blunt instrument, such as a hammer or rock applied with some force to the nut sitting in a concave surface, or a custom made macadamia nutcracker can be used. Nuts of the ``Arkin Papershell`` variety crack open more readily.

Macadamia Beaumont new growth

Cultivars

Beaumont

A M. integrifolia / M. tetraphylla hybrid commercial variety widely planted in Australia & New Zealand. Discovered by Dr. J. H. Beaumont. It has a good taste, high in oil, but not sweet. New leaves reddish, flowers bright pink, borne on long racemes. It is one of the quickest varieties to come into bearing once planted in the garden, usually carrying a useful crop by the fourth year, and improving from then on. It crops prodigously when well pollinated. The impressive grape-like clusters of nuts are sometimes so heavy they break the branchlet they are attached to. In commercial orchards, it has reached 18 kg of nuts per tree by 8 years old. On the downside, the nuts don't drop from the tree when ripe, and the leaves are a bit prickly when you are reaching into the interior of the tree during harvest. Beaumonts' shell is easier than most commercial varieties to open.

Macadamia Maroochy new growth

Maroochy

A pure M. tetraphylla variety from Australia, the tree is productive, and the small nut has a particularly good flavor. It is a good pollinator for Beaumont.

Nelmac II

A South African M. integrifolia / M. tetraphylla hybrid cultivar. It has a sweet nut, which means that it has to be cooked carefully so that the sugars do not caramelise. The sweet nut does not taste good when processed, but people who eat it uncooked relish the taste. The nut has an open micropyle (hole in the shell) which lets in mould. The crack out percentage is high. Ten year old trees average 22 kgs per tree. It is a popular variety because of its pollination of Beaumont, and the yields are almost comparable.

Renown

A M. integrifolia / M. tetraphylla hybrid. A rather spreading tree. On the plus side it is high yielding (commercially, 17 kgs off a 9 year old tree has been recorded), and the nuts drop to the ground, but the nut is thick shelled, and with not much flavor.

History

For thousands of years before European settlement the aborigines ate the native nut that grew in rainforests of eastern Australia. One of these nuts was called gyndl or jindilli (Macadmaia integrifolia), which was later borrowed as kindal kindal by early Europeans. In New South Wales, the southern species is known traditionally as boombera (Macadamia tetraphylla).[7] 1828 — Allan Cunningham is the first European to discover the macadamia plant. 1857 — German-Australian botanist Ferdinand von Mueller gave the genus the scientific name Macadamia — named after von Mueller’s friend Dr. John MacAdam, a noted scientist and secretary to the Philosophical Institute of Australia. 1858 — Walter Hill, Superintendent of the Brisbane City Botanical Gardens, observes a boy eating the nut without ill effect, becoming the first non-indigenous person recorded to eat Macadamia. 1860s — King Jacky, Aboriginal elder of the Logan River clan, south of Brisbane, Queensland, is the first known macadamia nut entrepreneur as he and his tribe regularly collected and traded the nuts with settlers. 1881 — William H. Purvis introduces macadamia nuts to Hawaii as a windbreak for sugar cane. 1882 — First commercial orchard of macadamia nuts planted at Rous Mill, 12 km from Lismore, by Charles Staff. 1889 — Joseph Maiden, Australian botanist, wrote ``It is well worth extensive cultivation, for the nuts are always eagerly bought.``[8] 1910 — Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment Station encourages planting of macadamia on Hawaii's Kona District, as a crop to supplement coffee production in the region.[9] 1922 — Ernst Van Tassel formed the Hawaiian Macadamia Nut Co in Hawai‘i. 1925 — Tassel leases 75 acres (300,000 m2) on Round Top in Honolulu (Nut Ridge) and begins a macadamia nut orchard, Hawaii's first macadamia nut farm. 1931 — Ernest Van Tassel establishes a macadamia nut processing factory on Puhukaina Street in Kakaako; nuts sold as Van's macadamia nuts. 1937 — W. W. Jones and J. H. Beaumont reports in ``Science,`` the first successful grafting of macadamia nuts that paved the way for mass production. 1940s — Steve Angus, Murwillumbah, Australia, forms Macadamia Nuts Pty Ltd, doing small scale nut processing. 1948 — A large plantation is planted in Hawaii.[10] 1953 — Castle & Cooke adds a new brand of macadamia nuts called ``Royal Hawaiian,`` which is credited with popularizing the nuts in the U. S. 1964 — Macadamia Nuts Pty Ltd, opened Australia’s first purpose-built processing plant at Slacks Creek, near Brisbane, Queensland. 1997 — Australia surpasses the United States as the major producer of macadamia nuts.[9] 2001 — Boo Yong Sia Estate planted 12,000 trees on 400 acres (1.6 km2) in the State of Johore, Malaysia. 2003 — Human nutrition research in Australia shows that macadamia nut lowers total and LDL cholesterol levels.[11]

Trivia

Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. Please relocate any relevant information into appropriate sections or articles. (March 2009) Macadamia nuts are often fed to Hyacinth Macaws in captivity.[12] These large parrots are one of the few animals, aside from humans, capable of cracking and shelling the nut. Macadamia nuts are toxic to dogs. Ingestion may result in macadamia nut toxicosis, which is marked by weakness with the inability to stand within 12 hours of ingestion. Recovery is usually within 48 hours.[13] The trees are also grown as ornamental plants in subtropical regions for their glossy foliage and attractive flowers. Macadamia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Batrachedra arenosella. Macadamia nuts are often used by law enforcement to simulate crack cocaine in drug stings.[14] When chopped, the nuts resemble crack cocaine in color.

References

^ Mueller, F.J.H. von (1857) Account of some New Australian Plants. Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria 2: 72 Type: Macadamia ternifolia F.Muell.[1] ^ Power, J., Macadamia Power in a Nutshell, 1982, ISBN 0-9592892-0-8, p. 13. ^ http://www.hawaiianhistory.org/moments/macadami.html ^ 2007 Hawaii Macadamia Production from Hawaii Department of Agriculture ^ Macadamia nutrition ^ (German)/(English) [2], Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food (Bundesforschungsanstalt für Ernährung und Lebensmittel (BfEL)). ^ Macadamia history ^ Maiden, J. H., The Useful Native Plants of Australia, 1889, p40 ^ a b Rieger, M., Introduction to Fruit Crops, 2006, p. 260. ISBN 15602225X ^ Sandra Wagner-Wright (1995). History of the macadamia nut industry in Hawai'i, 1881-1981. E. Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773490970. http://books.google.com/books?id=AeazAAAAIAAJ.  ^ Garg, M. L., Blake, R. J., Wills, R. B. H., Macadamia Nut Consumption Lowers Plasma Total and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Hypercholesterolemic Men, The American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 133:1060-1063, April 2003.[3] ^ Kashmir Csaky (2001). ``The Hyacinth Macaw.``. http://www.bluemacaws.org/avi18.htm. Retrieved 15 May 2007.  ^ ``Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs``, Steven R. Hansen, DVM, MS, DABVT. ASPCA.org. Reprinted with permission from the April 2002 issue of Veterinary Medicine. Accessed 5 June 2007. ^ ``Nuts! Cops use holiday treat in drug sting``, Chicago Sun Times, December 24, 2004. Accessed 21 November 2007.

External links

Flora of Australia: Macadamia ``Macadamia F.Muell.``. Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni?taxon_id=46142.  Australia's most delicious bush nut Hawaii Macadamia Nut Association official web site