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Mango

Nutritional Information

1 cup sliced, mango

  • Calories 107
  • Calories from Fat 4.05
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.45g1%
  • Saturated Fat 0.109g1%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.167g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.084g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 3mg0%
  • Potassium 257mg7%
  • Total Carbohydrate 28.05g9%
  • Dietary Fiber 3g12%
  • Sugars 24.42g
  • Protein 0.84g2%
  • Calcium 2mg0%
  • Iron 1mg6%
  • Vitamin A 25%
  • Vitamin C 76%

When In Season:

    Florida: June (early) - September (late)

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Mango on Wikipedia:

This article is about the fruit. For other meanings of the word, see Mango (disambiguation). Mango Ripe Banganpalli mangoes from Guntur, India. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Angiospermae Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Sapindales Family: Anacardiaceae Genus: Mangifera Species: Indica

Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is indigenous to India.[1] Cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions and distributed widely in the world, mango is one of the most extensively exploited fruits for food, juice, flavor, fragrance and color.

In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies.

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Description

Mango inflorescence and immature fruit The seed of mango can be hairy or fibrous

Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow 35–40 m (110–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The tree is long-lived; some specimens still fruit after 300 years. In deep soil the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft) and the profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots also send down many anchor roots which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–14 in) long and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen.

The ripe fruit is variable in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or green and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface. Ripe, unpeeled fruit gives off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) long, 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) and 1 cm (0.4 in). The seed contains the plant embryo.

The ``hedgehog`` style is a common way of eating mangoes (left). A cross section of a mango can be seen on the right

Cultivation and uses

Mango orchard in Multan, Pakistan Unripe mangoes in a mango tree

Mangoes have been cultivated in the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years[2] and reached East Asia between the 5th-4th century BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa]][2], coming later to Brazil, West Indies and Mexico, where appropriate climate allows its growth.[2] The 14th century Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[3]

Mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; nearly half of the world's mangoes are cultivated in India alone.[4][5][6]

Other cultivators include North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, south, west and central Africa, Australia, China, Pakistan and Southeast Asia. Many of its 1,000+ cultivars are easily cultivated, ranging from the ``turpentine mango`` (named for its strong taste of turpentine, which according to the Oxford Companion to Food some varieties actually contain) to the huevos de toro (``eggs of the bull``, a euphemism for ``bull's testicles``, referring to the shape and size).

Though India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than one percent of the global mango trade, consuming most of its own output.[7]

Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers.

A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes; see List of mango diseases.

Food

Mango is generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an over-ripe plum, while others flesh is firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado. Some cultivars' flesh has a fibrous texture. Mango is consumed both as ripe fruit and as raw fruit (vegetable)[citation needed]. In raw and pickle forms, the mango skin is consumed comfortably, whereas in fruits, the skin gets thicker and bitter and is usually not eaten. The ripe mango is commonly eaten fresh.

Indian and Pakistani Cuisine

Photo of sealed, soft, metal package

Mangoes are widely used in South Asian cuisine. Ayurveda considers ripe mango sweet and heating, balancing all three doshas (humors), while also providing energy. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, pickles, side dishes like meth-amba in Maharashtra and manga pachadi in Kerala. They are eaten raw with salt and chili. Raw mangoes are preserved in brine with dried red chilis, known as Fhodd. A cooling summer drink called panna or panha comes from mangoes.

Ripe mangoes are typically eaten fresh. Mango lassi (mango smoothie), made by adding mango pulp to the North Indian yoghurt drink lassi, is a popular drink, both in India and in Indian restaurants elsewhere. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries like mambazha kaalan in Kerala. Aamras is a popular pulp/thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk and is consumed along with bread.

Mangoes are used in preserves like moramba, amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango) and pickles (commonly known as achaar). Different varieties of mango pickles are made in many regions of India, such as Avakaya Pachchadi of Andhra Pradesh, Vadu Maangaa pickle and Thokku Manga pickle from Tamil Nadu, miscut (pronounced mis-koot), a spicy mustard-oil pickle from Goa. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars, known as aampapdi,' amavat or halva in Hindi, are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in Colombia.

The fruit is also added to cereal products like muesli and oat granola.

Other countries

Native green mangoes from the Philippines

In Australia, the mango season overlaps Christmas. Mangoes are eaten for breakfast during this period and the first box of mangoes is auctioned for charity.

In the Philippines, unripe mango is eaten with bagoong. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form Mangorind) are also popular, with those from Cebu exported worldwide. Mangoes are used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes. Guimaras produces a delicious mango.

In Mexico, mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or also as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica), mango is either eaten green with salt, pepper and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms. Only in Costa Rica, ripe mangoes are called manga to differentiate them. In Guatemala, toasted and ground pumpkin seed (called Pepita) with lime and salt are the norm when eating green mangoes. In Colombia mango is also eaten either green with salt and/or lime, or ripe in various forms.

Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. In Thailand and other South East Asian countries, sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of South-east Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. In Indonesia and Thailand, green mango is sold by street vendors with sugar and salt and/or chili, or used in a sour salad called rujak or rojak in Indonesia and Singapore. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimps. In Taiwan, mango is a topping that can be added to shaved ice along with condensed milk.

Nutrient and antioxidant properties

Mango, raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 272 kJ (65 kcal) Carbohydrates 17.00 g Sugars 14.8 g Dietary fiber 1.8 g Fat 0.27 g Protein .51 g Vitamin A equiv. 38 μg (4%) - beta-carotene 445 μg (4%) Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.058 mg (4%) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.057 mg (4%) Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.584 mg (4%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.160 mg (3%) Vitamin B6 0.134 mg (10%) Folate (Vit. B9) 14 μg (4%) Vitamin C 27.7 mg (46%) Calcium 10 mg (1%) Iron 0.13 mg (1%) Magnesium 9 mg (2%) Phosphorus 11 mg (2%) Potassium 156 mg (3%) Zinc 0.04 mg (0%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database

Mango is rich in a variety of phytochemicals[8] and nutrients. The fruit pulp is high in prebiotic dietary fiber, vitamin C, polyphenols and provitamin A carotenoids.[9]

Mango contains essential vitamins and dietary minerals. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E comprise 25%, 76% and 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165 grams (5.8 oz) serving. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants - carotenoids and polyphenols - and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Mango peel contains pigments that may have antioxidant properties,[8][10] including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,[11] polyphenols[12][13] such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthone, mangiferin,[14] any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease processes as revealed in preliminary research.[15][16] Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango species.[17] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species.[18] Peel and leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthones, mangiferin and gallic acid.[19]

The mango triterpene, lupeol[20] is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers.[21][22][23] An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro[24] and on blood parameters of elderly humans.[25]

The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cows fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possible urushiol poisoning.[26] This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.[27]

Potential for contact dermatitis

Mango peel contains urushiol, the chemical in poison ivy and poison sumac that can cause urushiol-induced contact dermatitis in susceptible people.[28] Cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol have been observed.[29] Those with a history of poison ivy or poison oak may be most at risk for such an allergic reaction.[30] Urushiol is also present in mango leaves and vines. During mango's primary season, it is the most common source of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.[31]

Cultural Aspects

Mango roundabout, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

The mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines.

In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees potential perfection. Mango blossoms are also used in worship of Goddess Saraswati.

Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram silk sarees etc.

Production and consumption

Female street vendor selling mangoes in Venezuela

Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates worldwide production at more than 33,000,000 tonnes (32,000,000 LT; 36,000,000 ST) in 2007 (table below). The aggregate production of the top 10 countries is responsible for roughly 80% of production.

Alphonso, Benishan or Benishaan (Banganpalli in Telugu and Tamil) and Kesar mango varieties are considered among the best mangoes in India's Southern states while Dussehri and Langda varieties are most popular in the Northern states.

Generally, ripe mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating, while exported fruit are often picked while under-ripe with green peels. Although producing ethylene while ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavor as fresh fruit.

Like other drupaceous fruits, mangoes come in both freestone and clingstone varieties.

Top producers of mangoes, mangosteens, guavas, 2007 Country Production in Tons  India 13,501,000