Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Powdered Milk

Nutritional Information

1 cup, powdered milk

  • Calories 151
  • Calories from Fat 89.37
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 9.93g15%
  • Saturated Fat 8.547g43%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.674g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.161g
  • Cholestreol 8mg3%
  • Sodium 53mg2%
  • Potassium 121mg3%
  • Total Carbohydrate 13.22g4%
  • Dietary Fiber 0g0%
  • Sugars 13.22g
  • Protein 2.88g6%
  • Calcium 7mg1%
  • Iron 0mg0%
  • Vitamin A 2%
  • Vitamin C 1%

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Powdered Milk on Wikipedia:

Powdered milk

Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy of transportation. Powdered milk and dairy products include such items as dry whole milk, non-fat dry milk, dry buttermilk, dry whey products and dry dairy blends.

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History and manufacture

While Marco Polo wrote of Mongolian Tatar troops in the time of Kublai Khan carrying sun-dried skimmed milk as ``a kind of paste``[1], the first usable commercial production of dried milk was invented by the Russian chemist M. Dirchoff in 1832. In 1855 T.S. Grimwade took a patent on a dried milk procedure[2], though a William Newton had patented a vacuum drying process as early as 1837[3]. Today, powdered milk is usually made by spray drying[4] nonfat skim milk, whole milk, buttermilk or whey. Pasteurized milk is first concentrated in an evaporator to about 50% milk solids. The resulting concentrated milk is sprayed into a heated chamber where the water almost instantly evaporates, leaving fine particles of powdered milk solids.

Alternatively, the milk can be dried by drum drying. Milk is applied as a thin film to the surface of a heated drum, and the dried milk solids are then scraped off. Powdered milk made this way tends to have a cooked flavor, due to caramelization caused by greater heat exposure.

Another process is freeze drying, which preserves many nutrients in milk, compared to drum drying.

The drying method and the heat treatment of the milk as it is processed alters the properties of the milk powder (for example, solubility in cold water, flavor, bulk density).

Uses

Powdered milk is frequently used in the manufacture of infant formula, confectionery such as chocolate and caramel candy, and in recipes for baked goods where adding liquid milk would render the product too thin. Powdered milk is also widely used in various sweets such as the famous Indian milk balls known as Rasa-Gulla and popular Indian sweet delicacy (sprinkled with desiccated coconut) known as Chum chum (made with skim milk powder).

Powdered milk is also a common item in UN food aid supplies, fallout shelters, warehouses, and wherever fresh milk is not a viable option. It is widely used in many developing countries because of reduced transport and storage costs (reduced bulk and weight, no refrigerated vehicles). As with other dry foods, it is considered nonperishable, and is favored by survivalists, hikers, and others requiring nonperishable, easy-to-prepare food.

Reconstituting one cup of milk from powdered milk requires one cup of potable water and one-third cup of powdered milk.

Powdered milk is also used in western blots as a blocking buffer to prevent nonspecific protein interactions[5], and is referred to as Blotto.

Food and health

Nutritional value

Milk powders contain all twenty standard amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and are high in soluble vitamins and minerals[6]. According to USAID[7] the typical average amounts of major nutrients in the unreconstituted milk are (by weight) 36% protein, 52% carbohydrates (predominantly lactose), calcium 1.3%, potassium 1.8%. Their milk powder is fortified with Vitamin A and D, 3000IU and 600IU respectively per 100g. Inappropriate storage conditions (high relative humidity and high ambient temperature) can significantly degrade the nutritive value of milk powder[8].

Commercial milk powders are reported to contain oxysterols (oxidized cholesterol)[9] in higher amounts than in fresh milk (up to 30μg/g, versus trace amounts in fresh milk)[10]. The oxysterol free radicals have been suspected of being initiators of atherosclerotic plaques[11]. For comparison, powdered eggs contain even more oxysterols, up to 200μg/g[12].

Market

Fonterra, a New Zealand based multinational company, is the world's largest producer of milk powder controlling 40 percent of the global whole milkpowder.[13] The dominance of New Zealand in the global dairy industry, for example Fonterra controls around 30% of the world's dairy exports[13], has prompted the formation of a futures market for trading whole milkpowder.[13]

Adulteration

In the 2008 Chinese milk scandal, melamine adulterant was found in Sanlu infant formula, added to fool tests into reporting higher protein content. Thousands became ill and some children died after consuming the product.

See also

Baked milk Condensed milk Evaporated milk Scalded milk Coconut milk powder

References

^ p 262 in ``The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Book 1`` translated by Sir Henry Yule (3rd edition),