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Ingredient Lookup

Red Wine Vinegar

Nutritional Information

1 tbsp, red wine vinegar

  • Calories 0
  • Calories from Fat 0
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0g0%
  • Saturated Fat 0g0%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 0mg0%
  • Potassium 0mg0%
  • Total Carbohydrate 0g0%
  • Dietary Fiber 0g0%
  • Sugars 0g
  • Protein 0g0%
  • Calcium 0mg0%
  • Iron 0mg0%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 0%

Red Wine Vinegar on Wikipedia:

This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (February 2009) Vinegar is commonly infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano

Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid (ethanoic acid). It also may come in a diluted form. The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar[1] (typically 5%) and higher concentrations for pickling (up to 18%). Natural vinegars also contain small amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. Vinegar has been used since ancient times and is an important element in European, Asian, and other cuisines.

The word ``vinegar`` derives from the Old French vin aigre, meaning ``sour wine``.

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History

Vinegar has been made and used by people for thousands of years. Traces of it have been found in Egyptian urns dating from around 3000 BC. According to Shennong's Herb Classic, vinegar was invented in China during the Xia Dynasty, around 2000 BC.

In the Bible, it is mentioned as something not very pleasant (Ps. 69:21, Prov. 25:20), but Boaz allows Ruth to ``dip her piece of bread in the vinegar`` (Ruth 2:14). Jesus was offered vinegar or sour wine while on the cross (Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36). In Islamic traditions, vinegar is one of the four favored condiments of the Prophet Muhammad, who called it a ``blessed seasoning``.[2]

In 1864, Louis Pasteur showed that vinegar results from a natural fermentation process.

Production

Vinegar is made from the oxidation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. The ethanol may be derived from many different sources including wine, cider, beer or fermented fruit juice, or it may be made synthetically from natural gas and petroleum derivatives[3].

Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. Slow methods generally are used with traditional vinegars and fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of weeks or months. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria and soluble cellulose, known as the mother of vinegar.

Fast methods add mother of vinegar (i.e. bacterial culture) to the source liquid before adding air using a Venturi pump system or a turbine to promote oxygenation to obtain the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in a period ranging from 20 hours to three days.

Varieties

A bottle of malt vinegar

Malt

Malt vinegar is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. It typically is light brown in color.

Wine

Sherry vinegar

Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine and is the most commonly used vinegar in Mediterranean countries and Central Europe. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a lower acidity than that of white or cider vinegars. There are more expensive wine vinegars that are made from individual varieties of wine, such as Champagne, Sherry, or pinot grigio.

Apple cider

Apple cider vinegar, otherwise known simply as cider vinegar, is made from cider or apple must and has a brownish-yellow color. It often is sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present, as a natural product. It is very popular, partly due to supposed beneficial health and beauty properties[citation needed]. Due to its acidity, apple cider vinegar may be very harsh even burning to the throat. If taken straight (as opposed to use in cooking), it can be diluted (e.g. with fruit juice or water) before drinking.[4] It is also sometimes sweetened with sugar or honey.[5] There have been reports of acid chemical burns of the throat in using the pill form.[6]

Fruit

Persimmon vinegar produced in South Korea

Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines, usually without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, black currant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product.

Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a growing market for high-priced vinegars made solely from specific fruits (as opposed to non-fruit vinegars which are infused with fruits or fruit flavors). Several varieties, however, also are produced in Asia. Persimmon vinegar, called gam sikcho (감식초), is popular in South Korea. Jujube vinegar photo (called 枣醋 or 红枣醋 in Chinese) and wolfberry vinegar photo (called 枸杞醋 in Chinese) are produced in China.

Umezu (梅酢; often translated as ``umeboshi vinegar`` or ``ume vinegar``), a salty, sour liquid that is a by-product of umeboshi (pickled ume) production, is produced in Japan, but technically is not a true vinegar.

Balsamic

Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic, aged type of vinegar traditionally crafted in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy from the concentrated juice, or must, of white grapes (typically of the Trebbiano variety). It is very dark brown in color and its flavor is rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being the product of years of aging in a successive number of casks made of various types of wood (including oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, ash, and acacia). Originally a product available only to the Italian upper classes, a cheaper form of balsamic vinegar became widely known and available around the world in the late twentieth century. True balsamic vinegar (which has Protected Designation of Origin) is aged for 12 to 25 years. Balsamic vinegars that have been aged for up to 100 years are available, though they are usually very expensive. The commercial balsamic sold in supermarkets is typically made with red wine vinegar or concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar, which is laced with caramel and sugar. Regardless of how it is produced, balsamic vinegar must be made from a grape product.

Balsamic vinegar has a high acidity level but the tart flavor is usually hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients, making it very mellow.

Rice

A bottle of rice vinegar produced in Guangdong, China

Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. It is available in ``white`` (light yellow), red, and black varieties. The Japanese prefer a light rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings. Red rice vinegar traditionally is colored with red yeast rice. Black rice vinegar (made with black glutinous rice) is most popular in China, and it is also widely used in other east Asian countries (see East Asian black, below).

White rice vinegar has a mild acidity and a somewhat ``flat``, uncomplex flavor. Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings.

Coconut

Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (particularly in the Philippines, a major producer, where it is called suka ng niyog), as well as in some cuisines of India. A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note.

Palm

Palm vinegar (sukang paombong)

Palm vinegar, made from the fermented sap from flower clusters of the nipa palm (also called attap palm), is used most often in the Philippines, where it is produced, and where it is called sukang paombong.

Cane

Cane vinegar, made from sugar cane juice, is most popular in the Philippines, in particular, the Ilocos Region of the northern Philippines (where it is called suka ng iloko), although it also is produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects, to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat ``fresher`` taste. Contrary to expectation, containing no residual sugar, it is not sweeter than other vinegars. In the Philippines, it often is labeled as suka ng maasim, although this is simply a generic term meaning ``sour vinegar.``

A white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years, where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold. It is now common for other types of vinegar (made from wine, rice and apple cider) to be sold mixed with cane vinegar to lower the costs.

Raisin

Raisin vinegar produced in Turkey

Vinegar made from raisins, called khal 'anab (خل عنب) in Arabic (literally meaning ``grape vinegar``) is used in cuisines of the Middle East, and is produced therein. It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor.photo

Date

Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East.[7]

Beer

A bottle of German beer vinegar

Vinegar made from beer is produced in the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Although its flavor depends on the particular type of beer from which it is made, it often is described as having a malty taste. That produced in Bavaria, is a light golden color with a very sharp and not-overly-complex flavor.

Honey

Vinegar made from honey is rare, although commercially available honey vinegars are produced in Italy and France.

East Asian black

Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor. There is no fixed recipe and thus some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Zhenjiang vinegar (鎮江香醋), originated in the city of Zhenjiang, in the eastern coastal province of Jiangsu, China[8] and also is produced in Tianjin and Hong Kong.

Japanese kurozu

A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, also is produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu. Since 2004 it has been marketed as a healthful drink; its manufacturers claim that it contains high concentrations of amino acids.

Flavored vinegars

Cantonese red vinegar

Popular fruit-flavored vinegars include those infused with whole raspberries, blueberries, or figs (or else from flavorings derived from these fruits). Some of the more exotic fruit-flavored vinegars include blood orange and pear.

Herb vinegars are flavored with herbs, most commonly Mediterranean herbs such as thyme or oregano. Such vinegars can be prepared at home by adding sprigs of fresh or dried herbs to vinegar purchased at a grocery store; generally a light-colored, mild tasting vinegar, such as that made from white wine, is used for this purpose.

Sweetened vinegar is of Cantonese origin and is made from rice wine, sugar and herbs including ginger, cloves, and other spices.

Spiced vinegar, from the Philippines (labeled as spiced sukang maasim), is flavored with chili peppers, onions, and garlic.

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