Food Guts - Ingredient Information

Ingredient Lookup

Sauerkraut

Nutritional Information

1 cup, sauerkraut

  • Calories 27
  • Calories from Fat 1.8
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.2g0%
  • Saturated Fat 0.05g0%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.018g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.087g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 939mg39%
  • Potassium 241mg7%
  • Total Carbohydrate 6.08g2%
  • Dietary Fiber 3.6g14%
  • Sugars 2.53g
  • Protein 1.29g3%
  • Calcium 4mg0%
  • Iron 12mg67%
  • Vitamin A 1%
  • Vitamin C 35%

Sauerkraut Cooking Considerations:

No Cooking Considerations yet. Add some!

Sauerkraut Storage Considerations:

No Storage Considerations yet. Add some!

Sauerkraut on Wikipedia:

Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. Please relocate any relevant information into appropriate sections or articles. (August 2009) Polish Sauerkraut (Kiszona kapusta)

Sauerkraut (pronounced /ˈsaÊŠrkraÊŠt/ in English; German pronunciation: [ˈzaÊŠ.ɐkʁaÊŠt]  ( listen), Yiddish: [ˈzÉ”i̯.əʀ.kʀɔi̯t]) is finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus.[1][2] It has a long shelf-life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage. It is therefore not to be confused with coleslaw, which receives its acidic taste from vinegar.

//

Preparation

Fermentation

Pickled Eisbein served with sauerkraut

Sauerkraut is made by a process of pickling called lacto-fermentation that is analogous to how traditional (not heat-treated) pickled cucumbers and kimchi are made. Fully-cured sauerkraut keeps for several months in an airtight container stored at or below 15°C (59°F). Neither refrigeration nor pasteurization is required, although these treatments may prolong storage life. However, pasteurization will destroy all of the beneficial digestive enzymes and lactic acid bacteria, as well as the valuable vitamin C content, so it greatly diminishes the nutritional value without any significant benefit.[citation needed]

No special culture of lactic acid bacteria is needed because these bacteria already are present on raw cabbage.[citation needed]Yeasts also are present, and may yield soft sauerkraut of poor flavor when the fermentation temperature is too high. The fermentation process has three phases. In the first phase, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter lead the fermentation, and begin producing an acid environment that favours later bacteria. The second phase starts as the acid levels become too high for many bacteria, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other Leuconostoc spp. take dominance. In the third phase, various Lactobacillus species including L. brevis and L. plantarum ferment any remaining sugars, further lowering the pH.[1][2]

Health and nutrition

Health benefits

Dutch sauerkraut (``zuurkool``) mashed with potatoes in pan Choucroute garnie, a traditional dish of Alsace, where sauerkraut is garnished with sausages and other pork meats Sauerkraut (including liquid) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 78 kJ (19 kcal) Carbohydrates 4.3 g Sugars 1.8 g Dietary fibre 2.9 g Fat 0.14 g Protein 0.9 g Water 92 g Vitamin B6 0.13 mg (10%) Vitamin C 15 mg (25%) Iron 1.5 mg (12%) Sodium 661 mg (29%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database

Raw sauerkraut is extremely healthy. It is an excellent source of vitamin C, lactobacilli, and other nutrients. However, the low pH and abundance of otherwise healthy lactobacilli may upset the intestines of people who are not used to eating acidic foods. (In such cases, it is advisable to eat small amounts daily until the person's digestive system adjusts.) Studies suggest that fermented cabbage may be even more healthy than the raw vegetable, with increased levels of anti-cancer agents such as isothiocyanates.[3]

Before frozen foods and the importation of foods from the Southern hemisphere became readily available in northern and central Europe, sauerkraut provided a vital source of the aforementioned nutrients during the winter. Captain James Cook always took a store of sauerkraut on his sea voyages, since experience had taught him that it was an effective preventative of scurvy.[4][5] German sailors continued this practice even after the British Royal Navy had switched to limes, earning the British sailor the nickname ``Limey`` while his German counterpart became known as a ``Kraut.`` [6]

It is now known that the preservation of sauerkraut in an anaerobic environment (in the brine) keeps the vitamin C in it from being oxidized.[clarification needed] There is some evidence that indicates that kimchi, and by extension sauerkraut, may be used to treat avian influenza in birds.[7] Currently, there is no evidence of its effect on human cases.

Sauerkraut is also a source of biogenic amines such as tyramine, which may cause adverse reactions in sensitive people.[8][9] It also provides various cancer-fighting compounds including isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

Sauerkraut juice is also credited with high medical qualities; its consumption is recommended for flu prevention, as a gastroregulator for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions, from diarrhea to constipation, ulcers, bronchitis and various other digestive and respiratory diseases and disorders, anemia, but its most popular use in the regions where it's produced has always been as a major remedy against hangover, since it not only drives away the headache, but it also neutralises the effects of alcoholic intoxication on the stomach and intestinal mucosa and cleans the liver.[18]

Similar foods

There are many other vegetables that are preserved by a similar process.

Korean kimchi Japanese tsukemono Chinese suan cai Filipino atchara

Also a feed for cattle, silage, is made the same way.

Sauerkraut candy

The dessert known as sauerkraut candy is a variant of a fudge penuche that is made with coconut flakes. Most recipes for sauerkraut candy call for use of shredded coconut, and other ingredients such as cocoa, chocolate, caramel and marshmallow.[19] It usually does not contain sauerkraut or cabbage, despite its name.[20] The candy first received its name because the coconut was prepared using the same cutter as was used to shred cabbage when preparing sauerkraut,[21] resulting in the finished candy having an appearance similar to that of a serving of sauerkraut.[22] However, recipes do exist for a non-penuche dessert where sauerkraut is actually used.[23][24]

Cultural references

During World War I, due to concerns the American public would reject a product with a German name, American sauerkraut makers relabeled their product as ``Liberty cabbage`` for the duration of the war.[25]

See also

Foods containing tyramine Pickling Kimchi Kraut Suan cai

References

^ a b Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4.  ^ a b ``Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective``. United Nations FAO. 1998. http://www.fao.org/docrep/x0560e/x0560e10.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-10.  ^ http://curezone.com/art/read.asp?ID=100&db=5&C0=17 ^ see http://www.mariner.org/exploration/index.php?type=webpage&id=55 / What did they eat? which begins ``One of Cook’s most important discoveries...`` and http://www.vitamindeficiency.info/?page_id=9 which additionally mentions ``...citrus fruit such as lemons and lime. James Cook ....`` ^ Saloheimo P (2005). ``[Captain Cook used sauerkraut to prevent scurvy]`` (in Finnish). Duodecim 121 (9): 1014–5. PMID 15991750.  ^ Cambridge Encyclopedia:Scurvy Website Accessed 28 November 2009 ^ ``BBC News — Korean dish ‘may cure bird flu’``. 2005-03-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4347443.stm. Retrieved 13 February 2008.  ^ ``British Nutrition Foundation``. http://www.nutrition.org.uk/home.asp?siteId=43&sectionId=776&parentSection=656. Retrieved 13 February 2008.  ^ ``The European Food Information Council (EUFIC) : Your guide to food safety & quality and health & nutrition for a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle.``. http://www.eufic.org/gb/food/pag/food28/food281.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2008.  ^ ``RD - simple ways to prevent cancer``. http://www.rd.com/health/cancer/31-simple-ways-to-prevent-cancer/article16072.html.  ^ Moret, Sabrina et al. (2005). ``A survey on free biogenic amine content of fresh and preserved vegetables``. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 89 (3): 355–361. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.050.  ^ Pu, C. et al. (November 2001). ``Research on the dynamic variation and elimination of nitrite content in sauerkraut during pickling``. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 30 (6): 352–4. PMID 12561618.  ^ Wantke, F. et al. (December 1993). ``Histamine-free diet: treatment of choice for histamine-induced food intolerance and supporting treatment for chronical headaches``. Clinical & Experimental Allergy (Blackwell Publishing) 23 (12): 982–5. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.1993.tb00287.x. PMID 10779289. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2222.1993.tb00287.x.  ^ Ward, Mary H. et al. (June 2000). ``Dietary exposure to nitrite and nitrosamines and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan``. International Journal of Cancer (John Wiley & Sons) 86 (5): 603–9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000601)86:5<603::AID-IJC1>3.0.CO;2-H. PMID 10797279. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/72001571/ABSTRACT.  ^ Chang, Ellen T.; Hans-Olov Adami (October 2006). ``The Enigmatic Epidemiology of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma``. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 15: 1765–77. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0353. PMID 17035381.  ^ Hung, Hsin-chia et al. (June 2004). ``Association between diet and esophageal cancer in Taiwan``. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 19 (6): 632–7. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2004.03346.x. PMID 15151616. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2004.03346.x.  ^ Siddiqi, Maqsood; R. Preussmann (1989). ``Esophageal cancer in Kashmir — an assessment``. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology (Springer) 115 (2): 111–7. doi:10.1007/BF00397910. PMID 2715165. http://www.springerlink.com/content/q673338420ul2555/. Retrieved 8 November 2007.  ^ ``(in Serbian)``. http://www.poljoprivreda.info/?oid=13&id=283.  ^ ``Newsbriefs``. Ludington Daily News. August 23, 1955. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=TBIJAAAAIBAJ&sjid=mzwDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3540,5481759&dq=sauerkraut-candy. Retrieved 2009-08-07.  ^ Meade, Mary (January 10, 1956). ``Sauerkraut Candy Is a Really Delectable Coconut Confection``. pp. B6, page 1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/514578792.html?dids=514578792:514578792&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Jan+10%2C+1956&author=&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=Sauerkraut+Candy+Is+a+Really+Delectable+Coconut+Confection.&pqatl=google. Retrieved 2009-08-07.  ^ Benning, Lee Edwards (1993). Oh Fudge!: A Celebration of America's Favorite Candy (reprint, revised ed.). Macmillan. pp. 83. ISBN 0805025464. OCLC 9780805025460. http://books.google.com/books?id=yZSFmbVFbj8C&pg=PA83&dq=sauerkraut-candy&ei=n458SuiyC4uolQT74o3KDQ#v=onepage&q=sauerkraut-candy&f=false. Retrieved August 7, 2009.  ^ Calzolari, Anne Marie (March 5, 2009). ``Season for sauerkraut is at hand``. Staten Island Advance. http://www.silive.com/eastshore/weekly/index.ssf?/base/news/1236260714202560.xml&coll=1. Retrieved 2009-08-07.  ^ Hensley, Shirley (2008). Sauerkraut's Incredible Fascinations: Astonishingly Impressive Sauerkraut Recipes with an Astounding Taste!!!. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1425165206. OCLC 9781425165208. http://books.google.com/books?id=qvLro3A9g4oC&pg=PT11&dq=sauerkraut-candy&ei=mJN8Sr3zM5PclQThu5zNDQ#v=onepage&q=sauerkraut-candy&f=false. Retrieved August 7, 2009.  ^ ``Uncle Phaedrus, Finder of Lost Recipes``. http://www.hungrybrowser.com/phaedrus/2000b2.htm#1. Retrieved 2008-02-13.  ^ ``Over Here: World War I on the Home Front``. Digital History. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=531. Retrieved 2006-07-12. 

Bibliography

USDA Canning guides, Volume 7 ``rec.foods.preserving FAQ``. http://rfpfaq.jaclu.com/rfpFAQ.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-23.  Aubert, Claude (1999). Keeping Food Fresh: Old World Techniques & Recipes. Chelsea Green Publishing Company. ISBN 1-890132-10-1.  Fallon, Sally, with Enig, Mary G., Ph.D. (2001). Nourishing Traditions...[westonaprice.org; newtrendspublishing.com]. New Trends Publishing. ISBN 0967089735.  Katz, Sandor Ellix (2003). Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods. Chelsea Green Publishing Company. ISBN 1-931498-23-7. http://www.wildfermentation.com/. Retrieved 2006-04-23.  Kaufmann, Klaus (2001). Making Sauerkraut and Pickled Vegetables at Home. Book Publishing Company. ISBN 9781553120377. http://www.cc6582.hostcentric.com/public_html/bpc/products/making-sauerkraut. 

External links

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on Sauerkraut Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sauerkraut Live Sauerkraut Recipe German Food Guide: Sauerkraut 12 International Sauerkraut Recipes Korean dish ``may cure bird flu`` Wild Fermentation recipe for making sauerkraut The Sauerkraut Fermentation described here Fermenting food since before H. sapiens appeared Official L-E Krautfest Homepage Photo Tutorial on Making Sauerkraut and KimChi