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Sausage

Nutritional Information

1 oz cooked, sausage

  • Calories 91
  • Calories from Fat 73.26
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 8.14g13%
  • Saturated Fat 3.224g16%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 3.844g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.303g
  • Cholestreol 15mg5%
  • Sodium 315mg13%
  • Potassium 45mg1%
  • Total Carbohydrate 1.12g0%
  • Dietary Fiber 0g0%
  • Sugars 0.71g
  • Protein 3.09g6%
  • Calcium 0mg0%
  • Iron 2mg11%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 2%

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Sausage on Wikipedia:

This article is about the prepared meat. For other uses, see Sausage (disambiguation). Kiełbasa Biała Surowa (White Sausage), Szynkowa (smoked), Śląska and Podhalańska styles (Poland)

A sausage is a food made from ground meat, both beef and pork. Also commonly included is ground pork fat (fatback), salt, herbs and spices.

Typically the sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine, but sometimes synthetic. Some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may be removed afterwards.

Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique. Sausages may be preserved by curing, drying, or smoking.

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History

Sausage making in Hungary

Sausages are a result of economical butchery. Traditionally, sausage-makers put to use tissues and organs which are perfectly edible and nutritious, but not particularly appealing - such as scraps, organ meats, blood, and fat - in a form that allows for preservation: typically, salted and stuffed into a tubular casing made from the cleaned and turned inside-out intestine of the animal, producing the characteristic cylindrical shape. Hence, sausages, puddings and salami are amongst the oldest of prepared foods, whether cooked and eaten immediately or dried to varying degrees.

The first sausages were made by early humans, stuffing roasted intestines into stomachs.[1] As early as 589 BC, a Chinese sausage làcháng was mentioned consisting of goat and lamb meat. The Greek poet Homer, mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey, and Epicharmus wrote a comedy titled The Sausage. Evidence suggests that sausages were already popular both among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and most likely with the illiterate tribes occupying the larger part of Europe.[1]

German Wurst: liver sausage, blood sausage and ham sausage

Sausage in Italy has its roots in Lucania, now known as Basilicata. Philosophers such as Cicero and Martial stated a kind of sausage called lucanica, actually widespread in Italy, was introduced by Lucanian slaves during the Roman Empire.[2] During the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, sausages were associated with the Lupercalia festival. Early in the 10th century in the Byzantine Empire, Leo VI the Wise outlawed the production of blood sausages following cases of food poisoning.

Traditionally, sausage casings were made of the cleaned intestines, or stomachs in the case of haggis and other traditional puddings. Today, however, natural casings are often replaced by collagen, cellulose or even plastic casings, especially in the case of industrially manufactured sausages. Some forms of sausage, such as sliced sausage, are prepared without a casing. Additionally, luncheon meat and sausage meat are now available without casings in tin cans and jars.

The most basic sausage consists of meat, cut into pieces or ground, and filled into a casing. The meat may be from any animal, but traditionally is pork, beef or veal. The meat to fat ratio is dependent upon the style and producer, but in the United States, fat content is legally limited to a maximum of 30%, 35% or 50%, by weight, depending on the style. The United States Department of Agriculture defines the content for various sausages and generally prohibits fillers and extenders.[3] Most traditional styles of sausage from Europe and Asia use no bread-based filler and are 100% meat and fat excluding flavorings.[4] In the UK and other countries with English cuisine traditions, bread and starch-based fillers account for up to 25% of ingredients. The filler used in many sausages helps them to keep their shape as they are cooked. As the meat contracts in the heat, so the filler expands and absorbs the moisture lost from the meat.

The word sausage is derived from Old French saussiche, from the Latin word salsus, meaning salted.

Classification of the sausage

Sausages from Réunion Swojska (Polish) Krajańska (Polish) Szynkowa (Polish)

Sausages classification is subject to regional differences of opinion. Various metrics such as types of ingredients, consistency, and preparation are used. In the English-speaking world, the following distinction between fresh, cooked, and dry sausages seems to be more or less accepted:

Cooked sausages are made with fresh meats, and then fully cooked. They are either eaten immediately after cooking or must be refrigerated. Examples include hot dogs, Braunschweiger and liver sausage. Cooked smoked sausages are cooked and then smoked or smoke-cooked. They are eaten hot or cold, but need to be refrigerated. Examples include Gyulai kolbász, kielbasa and Mortadella. Fresh sausages are made from meats that have not been previously cured. They must be refrigerated and thoroughly cooked before eating. Examples include Boerewors, Italian pork sausage and breakfast sausage. Fresh smoked sausages are fresh sausages that are smoked. They should be refrigerated and cooked thoroughly before eating. Examples include Mettwurst and Teewurst. Dry sausages are cured sausages that are fermented and dried. They are generally eaten cold and will keep for a long time. Examples include salami, Droë wors, Sucuk, Landjäger, and summer sausage. Bulk sausage, or sometimes sausage meat, refers to raw, ground, spiced meat, usually sold without any casing.

The distinct flavor of some sausages is due to fermentation by Lactobacillus, Pediococcus or Micrococcus (added as starter cultures) or natural flora during curing.

Other countries, however, use different systems of classification. Germany, for instance, which boasts more than 1200 types of sausage, distinguishes raw, cooked and pre-cooked sausages.

Raw sausages are made with raw meat and are not cooked. They are preserved by lactic acid fermentation, and may be dried, brined or smoked. Most raw sausages will keep for a long time. Examples include mettwurst and salami. Cooked sausages may include water and emulsifiers and are always cooked. They will not keep long. Examples include cervelat, Jagdwurst and Weißwurst. Pre-cooked sausages are made with cooked meat, and may include raw organ meat. They may be heated after casing, and will keep only for a few days. Examples include Saumagen and Blutwurst.

In Italy, the basic distinction is:

Raw sausage ('salsiccia``) with a thin casing Cured and aged sausage (``salsiccia stagionata`` or ``salsiccia secca``) Cooked sausage (``wuerstel``) Blood sausage (``Sanguinaccio`` or ``boudin``) Liver sausage (``salsiccia di fegato``) Salami (in Italy ``salami`` is the plural form of ``salame`` that is a big cured sausage, fermented and air-dried) Cheese sausage (``Caselsiccia``) with cheese inside

The U.S. has a particular type called pickled sausages, commonly found in gas stations and small roadside delicatessens. These are usually smoked or boiled sausages of a highly processed hot dog or kielbasa style plunged into a boiling brine of vinegar, salt, spices and often a pink coloring, then canned in Mason jars. They are available in single blister packs or sold out of a jar. They are shelf stable, and are a frequently offered alternative to beef jerky, Slim Jims, and other kippered snacks.

Certain countries classify sausage types according to the region in which the sausage was traditionally produced:

France: Montbéliard, Morteau, Strasbourg, Toulouse,... Germany: Frankfurt am Main, Thuringia, Nuremberg, Pomerania, ... Austria: Vienna, ... Italy: Merano (Meraner Wuerst), Lucania (luganega), UK: Cumberland, Chiltern, Lincolnshire, Glamorgan, ... Slovenia: Kranjska (klobasa), after the Slovenian name for the province of Carniola Spain: botifarra catalana, chorizo riojano, chorizo gallego, chorizo de Teror, longaniza de Aragón, morcilla de Burgos, morcilla de Ronda, morcilla extremeña, morcilla dulce canaria, llonganissa de Vic, fuet d'Olot, sobrassada mallorquina, botillo de León, llonganissa de Valencia, farinato de Salamanca, ... Poland: kielbasa krakowska (Kraków-style), toruÅ„ska (ToruÅ„), żywiecka (Å»ywiec), bydgoska (Bydgoszcz), krotoszyÅ„ska (Krotoszyn), podwawelska (literally: ``from under Wawel``), zielonogórska (Zielona Góra), rzeszowska (Rzeszów), Å›lÄ…ska (Silesia), swojska, wiejska, jaÅ‚owcowa, zwyczajna, polska, krajaÅ„ska, szynkowa, parówkowa, ... Hungary: kolbász gyulai (after the town of Gyula), csabai (after the city of Békéscsaba), Debrecener (after the city of Debrecen).

National varieties

Sausage making in Russia

Many nations and regions have their own characteristic sausages, using meats and other ingredients native to the region and employed in traditional dishes.

Europe

Britain & Ireland

Sausages, seen in The Covered Market, Oxford.

In the UK and Ireland, sausages are a very popular and common feaure of the national diet and popular culture.

British and Irish sausages are normally made from raw pork or beef mixed with a variety of herbs and spices and cereals, many recipes of which are traditionally associated with particular regions (for example Cumberland sausages). They normally contain a certain amount of rusk, or bread-rusk, and are traditionally cooked by frying, grilling or roasting prior to eating.

Due to their habit of often exploding due to shrinkage of the tight skin during cooking, they are commonly referred to as bangers, particularly when served with the most common accompaniment of mashed potatoes to form a bi-national dish known as bangers and mash. (The designation banger was in use at least as far back as 1919 and is often said to have been popularized in World War II, when scarcity of meat led many sausage makers to add water to the mixture, making it more likely to explode on heating.)

Due to health concerns over the quality of the meat contained in many commercially produced sausages (heightened by the BSE crisis in the 1990s) there has been a marked improvement in the quality of meat content in commonly available British sausages with a return to the artisanal production of high quality traditional recipes, which had previously been in decline. However many of the cheaper sausages available use mechanically recovered meat or meat slurry.

There are various laws concerning the meat content of sausages in the UK. The minimum meat content to be labeled Pork Sausages is 42% (30% for other types of meat sausages), although to be classed as meat, the Pork can contain 30% fat and 25% connective tissue. Often the cheapest supermarket pork sausages do not have the necessary meat content to be described as Pork Sausages and are simply labeled 'Sausages'. These typically contain MRM which under EU law can no longer be described as meat.[5][6]

There are currently organisations in a number of UK counties such as Lincolnshire who are seeking European Protected designation of origin (PDO) for their sausages so that they can be made only in the appropriate region and to an attested recipe and quality.[7]

Famously, they are an essential component of a full English or Irish breakfast. In the UK alone, there are believed to be over 470 different types of sausages;[8] some made to traditional regional recipes such as those from Cumberland or Lincolnshire, and increasingly to modern recipes which combine fruit such as apples or apricots with the meat, or are influenced by European styles such as the Toulouse or Chorizo.

A popular and widespread snack is the sausage roll made from sausage-meat rolled in puff pastry; they are sold from most bakeries and often made in the home.

They may also be baked in a Yorkshire pudding batter to create ``toad in the hole``, often served with gravy and onions.

In many areas, ``sausage meat`` for frying and stuffing into poultry and meat, is sold as slices cut from an oblong block of pressed meat without casing: in Scotland this is known as Lorne Sausage or often sliced sausage or square sausage, while the usual form is sometimes called sausage links. Lorne Sausage is very popular in and around Glasgow. It is usually grilled, though frying is not unusual.

Battered sausage, consisting of a sausage dipped in batter, and fried, is sold throughout Britain from Fish and Chip shops. In England, Saveloy is a type of pre-cooked sausage, larger than a typical hot-dog which is served hot. A saveloy skin was traditionally colored with bismarck-brown dye giving saveloy a distinctive bright red color.

A short variety of sausage, known as the chipolata or 'cocktail sausage' is often wrapped in bacon and served alongside roast turkey at Christmas time and are known as Pigs in a Blanket or ``Pigs in Blankets``. They are also served cold at children's parties throughout the year.

As in Europe, regional types of sausage often overlap with puddings such as the black pudding, white pudding,