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Shrimp

Nutritional Information

1 cup, with shell, cooked (yield after shell removed), shrimp

  • Calories 125
  • Calories from Fat 18.36
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 2.04g3%
  • Saturated Fat 0.388g2%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.299g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.791g
  • Cholestreol 179mg60%
  • Sodium 533mg22%
  • Potassium 153mg4%
  • Total Carbohydrate 1.08g0%
  • Dietary Fiber 0g0%
  • Sugars 0g
  • Protein 24g48%
  • Calcium 6mg1%
  • Iron 14mg78%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 3%

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Shrimp on Wikipedia:

For other uses, see Shrimp (disambiguation). Shrimp Fossil range: Lower Jurassic–Recent PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K Pg N Heterocarpus ensifer Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Crustacea Class: Malacostraca Order: Decapoda Suborder: Pleocyemata Infraorder: Caridea Dana, 1852 Superfamilies [1] Alpheoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Atyoidea De Haan, 1849 Bresilioidea Calman, 1896 Campylonotoidea Sollaud, 1913 Crangonoidea Haworth, 1825 Galatheacaridoidea Vereshchaka, 1997 Nematocarcinoidea Smith, 1884 Oplophoroidea Dana, 1852 Palaemonoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Pandaloidea Haworth, 1825 Pasiphaeoidea Dana, 1852 Physetocaridoidea Chace, 1940a Procaridoidea Chace & Manning, 1972 Processoidea Ortmann, 1896 Psalidopodoidea Wood-Mason, 1892 Stylodactyloidea Bate, 1888

Shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. Adult shrimp are filter feeding benthic animals living close to the bottom. They can live in schools and can swim rapidly backwards. Shrimp are an important food source for larger animals from fish to whales. They have a high resistance to toxins in polluted areas, and may contribute to high toxin levels in their predators. Together with prawns, shrimp are widely caught and farmed for human consumption.

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Taxonomy

A number of more or less unrelated crustaceans share the word ``shrimp`` in their common name. Examples are the mantis shrimp and the opossum or mysid shrimp, both of which belong to the same class (Malacostraca) as the true shrimp, but constitute two different orders within it, the Stomatopoda and the Mysidacea. Triops longicaudatus and Triops cancriformis are also popular animals in freshwater aquaria, and are often called shrimp, although they belong instead to the Notostraca, a quite unrelated group.

Biological definition

Shrimp (Caridea) typically have two pairs of claws, and the second segment of the abdomen overlaps those on either side. The abdomen shows a pronouned caridean bend. Prawns (Dendrobanchiata), such as this Penaeus species, typically have three pairs of claws, and even sized segments on the abdomen. There is no pronounced bend in the abdomen

The class Malacostraca contains about half of the crustaceans. The members of this class have a primitive body plan that can be described as shrimp-like, consisting of a 5-8-7 body plan. They have a small carapace that encloses the head and the thorax, and have a muscular abdomen for swimming. They also have a thin exoskeleton to maintain a light weight. These general characters are common in all members of the class.

The class can be further divided into the decapods, which are even still divided into the dendrobranchiates (prawns) and the carideans (shrimp and snapping shrimp) [2].

The prawns have sequentially overlapping body segments (segment one covers the segment two, segment two covers segment three, etc), chlelate (claw like) first three leg pairs, and have a very basic larval body type.

The shrimps also have overlapping segments, however, in a different pattern (segment two overlaps segments one and three), only the first two leg pairs are chelate, and they have a more complex larval form.

Biologists distinguish the true shrimp from the true prawn because of the differences in their gill structures. The gill structure is lamellar in shrimp but branching in prawns. The easiest practical way to separate true shrimps from true prawns is to examine the second abdominal segment. The second segment of a shrimp overlaps both the first and the third segment, while the second segment of a prawn overlaps only the third segment [3].

Commercial and culinary definition

While in biological terms shrimps and prawns belong to different suborders of Decapoda, they are very similar in appearance. In commercial farming and fisheries, the terms shrimp and prawn are often used interchangeably. However, recent aquaculture literature increasingly uses the term ``prawn`` only for the freshwater forms of palaemonids and ``shrimp`` for the marine penaeids [4].

In the United Kingdom, the word “prawn” is more common on menus than “shrimp”; while the opposite is the case in North America. The term “prawn” is also loosely used to describe any large shrimp, especially those that come 15 (or fewer) to the pound (such as “king prawns”, yet sometimes known as “jumbo shrimp”). Australia and some other Commonwealth nations follow this British usage to an even greater extent, using the word “prawn” almost exclusively. When Australian comedian Paul Hogan used the phrase, “I'll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you” in an American television advertisement [5], it was intended to make what he was saying easier for his American audience to understand, and was thus a deliberate distortion of what an Australian would typically say.

In Britain very small crustaceans with a brownish shell are called shrimp, and are used to make potted shrimp. They are also used in dishes where they are not the primary ingredient.

Consumption

A fresh catch of brown shrimp, Crangon crangon

As with other seafood, shrimp is high in calcium, iodine and protein but low in food energy. A shrimp-based meal is also a significant source of cholesterol, from 122 mg to 251 mg per 100 g of shrimp, depending on the method of preparation [6] Shrimp consumption, however, is considered healthy for the circulatory system because the lack of significant levels of saturated fat in shrimp means that the high cholesterol content in shrimp actually improves the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and lowers triglycerides [7].

Shrimp and other shellfish are among the most common food allergens [8]. They are not kosher and thus are forbidden in Jewish cuisine. However, according to some mazhab, shrimp are halal, and therefore are permissible in Islamic cuisine.

Commercial fishing

Main article: Shrimp fishery Double-rigged shrimp trawler hauling in the nets

Common commercial methods for catching shrimp and prawns include otter trawls, cast nets, seines, shrimp baiting and dip netting. Trawling involves the use of a system of nets. In some parts of the Pacific Northwest, fishing with baited traps is also common.

The following table shows the yearly weight of shrimp and prawns captured globally in millions of tonnes [9].

Production 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Million tonnes 3.03 3.09 2.96 2.97 3.55 3.54 3.42

The highest rates of incidental catch of non-target species is associated with shrimp trawling. In 1997, the FAO documented the estimated bycatch and discard levels from shrimp fisheries around the world. They found discard rates as high as 20 pounds for every pound of shrimp, with a world average of 5.7 pounds for every pound of shrimp [10].

Trawl nets in general, and shrimp trawls in particular, have been identified as sources of mortality for species of finfish and cetaceans [11]. Bycatch is often discarded dead or dying by the time it is returned to the sea, and may alter the ecological balance in discarded regions [12]. Worldwide, shrimp trawl fisheries generate about 2% of the world’s catch of fish in weight, but result in more than one third of the global bycatch total.

Farming

Tanks in a shrimp hatchery Main articles: Shrimp farm and Freshwater prawn farm

A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawnsa for human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demands of the U.S., Japan and Western Europe. The total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, representing a value of nearly 9,000 million U.S. dollars. About 75% of farmed shrimp are produced in Asia, in particular in