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Strawberries

Nutritional Information

1 cup halves, strawberries

  • Calories 49
  • Calories from Fat 4.14
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.46g1%
  • Saturated Fat 0.023g0%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.065g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.236g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 2mg0%
  • Potassium 233mg7%
  • Total Carbohydrate 11.67g4%
  • Dietary Fiber 3g12%
  • Sugars 7.08g
  • Protein 1.02g2%
  • Calcium 2mg0%
  • Iron 4mg22%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 149%

When In Season:

    Alabama: March (late) - May (late)
    Alaska: July (early) - September (early)
    Arkansas: May (late) - June (late)
    California (Northern): March (early) - October (late)
    California (Southern): January (early) - October (late)
    Colorado: June (early) - September (late)
    Connecticut: June (early) - July (early)
    Delaware: May (late) - June (early)
    Florida: January (early) - May (late), November (early) - December (late)
    Georgia: March (early) - May (late)
    Illinois: May (early) - June (late)
    Indiana: May (late) - June (late)
    Iowa: June (early) - June (late)
    Kentucky: July (early) - August (late)
    Maine: June (late) - July (early)September (late)
    Maryland: May (late) - June (late)
    Massachusetts: July (early) - July (late)
    Michigan: May (late) - July (early)
    Minnesota: April (early) - September (late)
    Mississippi: March (early) - June (early)
    Missouri: May (late) - August (late)
    New Hampshire: June (early) - July (early)
    New Jersey: May (late) - June (late)
    New York: June (early) - June (late)
    North Carolina: April (late) - June (early)
    North Dakota: July (early) - September (late)
    Ohio: May (late) - June (late)
    Oklahoma: May (early) - June (late)
    Oregon: June (early) - July (late)
    Rhode Island: May (late) - July (early)
    Tennessee: May (early) - June (early)
    Texas: March (early) - April (late)
    Vermont: June (early) - July (early)
    Virginia: May (early) - June (early)
    Washington: June (early) - August (late)
    Wisconsin: June (late) - July (early)

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Strawberries on Wikipedia:

This article is about the most commonly cultivated species of strawberry. For other species, see Fragaria. ``Strawberry`` redirects here. For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). Garden strawberry Garden strawberries grown hydroponically. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Rosales Family: Rosaceae Genus: Fragaria Species: F. × ananassa Binomial name Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne

The garden strawberry is a common plant of the genus Fragaria which is cultivated worldwide for its fruit, the (common) strawberry. The fruit is widely appreciated, mainly for its characteristic aroma but also for its bright red color, and it is consumed in large quantities — either fresh, or in prepared foods such as preserves, fruit juice, pies, ice creams, milk shake, etc.. Artificial strawberry aroma is also widely used in all sorts of industrialized food products.

The garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France in 1740 via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America , which was noted for its flavor, and Fragaria chiloensis from Chile and Argentina brought by Amédée-François Frézier, which was noted for its large size.[1]

Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, which was the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century.[2]

The strawberry is technically an accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries (achenes) but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries[3]. Accessory fruits were sometimes in the past referred to as ``false`` or ``spurious`` fruits, but those terms have been criticized as ``inapt``[3] and are not used by botanists today.

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Cultivation

Fragaria × ananassa 'Gariguette,' a cultivar grown in southern France.

Strawberry cultivars vary remarkably in size, color, flavor, shape, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.[4] Some vary in foliage, and some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female.[5]

For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners and generally distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models, annual plasticulture[6] or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds.[7] A small amount of strawberries are also produced in greenhouses during the off season.[8]

A garden using the plasticulture method

The bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year, fumigated, and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants, usually obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, and irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development. At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground.[9][6] Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings.[9][6] However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for establishment of the plants each year, and because of the increased costs in terms of forming and covering the mounds and purchasing plants each year, it is not always practical in all areas.[9]

The other major method, which uses the same plants from year to year growing in rows or on mounds, is most common in colder climates.[6][7] It has lower investment costs, and lower overall maintenance requirements.[7] Yields are typically lower than in plasticulture.[7]

A third method, uses a compost sock. Plants grown in compost socks have been shown to produce significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), flavonoids, anthocyanins, fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, and citric acid than fruit produced in the black plastic mulch or matted row systems.[10] Similar results in an earlier 2003 study conducted by the US Dept of Agriculture, at the Agricultural Research Service, in Beltsville Maryland, confirms how compost plays a role in the bioactive qualities of two strawberry cultivars.[11]

Fragaria × ananassa 'Chandler,' a short-day commercial cultivar grown in California.

Strawberries are often grouped according to their flowering habit.[4][12] Traditionally, this has consisted of a division between ``June-bearing`` strawberries, which bear their fruit in the early summer and ``ever-bearing`` strawberries, which often bear several crops of fruit throughout the season.[12] More recently, research has shown that strawberries actually occur in three basic flowering habits: short day, long day, and day neutral. These refer to the day length sensitivity of the plant and the type of photoperiod which induces flower formation. Day neutral cultivars produce flowers regardless of the photoperiod.[13]

Strawberries may also be propagated by seed, though this is primarily a hobby activity, and is not widely practiced commercially. A few seed-propagated cultivars have been developed for home use, and research into growing from seed commercially is ongoing.[14] Seeds (achenes) are acquired either via commercial seed suppliers, or by collecting and saving them from the fruit.

Manuring and harvesting

Most strawberry plants are now fed with artificial fertilizers, both before and after harvesting, and often before planting in plasticulture.[15]

The harvesting and cleaning process has not changed substantially over time. The delicate strawberries are still harvested by hand.[16] Grading and packing often occurs in the field, rather than in a processing facility.[16] In large operations, strawberries are cleaned by means of water streams and shaking conveyor belts.[17]

Pests

Around 200 species of pests are known to attack strawberries both directly and indirectly.[18] These pests include slugs, moths, fruit flies, chafers, strawberry root weevils, strawberry thrips, strawberry sap beetles, strawberry crown moth, mites, aphids, and others.[18][19]

A number of species of Lepidoptera feed on strawberry plants; for details see this list.

Diseases

See also: List of strawberry diseases

Strawberry plants can fall victim to a number of diseases.

Headline text

[20] The leaves may be attacked by powdery mildew, leaf spot (caused by the fungus Sphaerella fragariae), leaf blight (caused by the fungus Phomopsis obscurans), and by a variety of slime molds.[20] The crown and roots may fall victim to red stele, verticillium wilt, black root rot, and nematodes.[20] The fruits are subject to damage from gray mold, rhizopus rot, and leather rot.[20] The plants can also develop disease from temperature extremes during winter.[20]

Production trends

Strawberry output in 2005 World strawberry production 2005-2007 (tonnes) (for countries with production of more than 50,000 tonnes in 2007) [21] Country 2005 2006 2007 Egypt 100,000 100,000 104,000 Germany 146,500 173,230 158,658 Italy 146,769 131,305 57,670 Japan 196,200 190,700 193,000 Mexico 162,627 191,843 176,396 Morocco 118,600 112,000 100,000 Poland 184,627 193,666 174,578 Russia 221,000 227,000 230,400 Korea, South 201,995 205,307 203,227 Spain 320,853 333,485 263,900 Turkey 200,000 211,127 250,316 United Kingdom 68,600 73,900 87,200 USA 1,053,242 1,090,436 1,133,703 Total world 3,782,906 3,917,140 3,824,678

Growing

Strawberries are an easy plant to grow, and can be grown almost anywhere in the world. The best thing to do is to buy a plant in early to middle spring. Place the plant preferably in full sun, and in somewhat sandy soil. Strawberries are a strong plant that will survive many conditions, but during the time that the plant is forming fruit, it is important for it to get enough water. Strawberries can also be grown as a potted plant, and will still produce fruit. A strawberry plant will send out shoots in an attempt to propagate a new plant, and if left alone, it will be successful in doing so, but this shoot can be cut off, and placed wherever you wish to start a new plant.

Uses

Strawberry jam

In addition to being consumed fresh, strawberries can be frozen, made into preserves, as well as dried and used in such things as cereal bars. Strawberries are a popular addition to dairy products, as in strawberry flavored ice cream, milkshakes, smoothies and yogurts. Strawberries and Cream is a popular dessert, famously consumed at Wimbledon. Strawberry pie is also popular.

Strawberry pigment extract can be used as a natural acid/base indicator due to the different color of the conjugate acid and conjugate base of the pigment.[22]

Nutrition

One cup (144 g) of strawberries contains approximately 45 calories (188 kJ) and is an excellent source of vitamin C and flavonoids.[23][24][25]

Nutrient Units 1 cup, whole
144 g Proximates Water g 132 Energy kcal 43 Energy kJ 181 Protein g 0.88 Total lipid (fat) g 0.53 Carbohydrate, by difference g 10.1 Fibre, total dietary g 3.3 Ash g 0.62 Minerals Calcium, Ca mg 20 Iron, Fe mg 0.55 Magnesium, Mg mg 14 Phosphorus, P mg 27 Potassium, K mg 240 Sodium, Na mg 1.44 Zinc, Zn mg 0.19 Copper, Cu mg 0.07 Manganese, Mn mg 0.42 Selenium, Se µg 1.01 Vitamins Vitamin C, ascorbic acid mg 82 Thiamin mg 0.03 Riboflavin mg 0.1 Niacin mg 0.33 Pantothenic acid mg 0.49 Vitamin B-6 mg 0.09 Folate µg 25 Vitamin B-12 µg 0 Vitamin A, IU IU 39 Vitamin A, RE µg RE 4.3 Vitamin E mg ATE 0.20 Nutrient Units 1 cup, whole
144 g Lipids Fatty acids, saturated g 0.03 16:0 g 0.02 18:0 g 0.006 Fatty acids, monounsaturated g 0.075 16:1 g 0.001 18:1 g 0.073 Fatty acids, polyunsaturated g 0.27 18:2 g 0.16 18:3 g 0.11 Cholesterol mg 0 Phytosterols mg 17 Amino acids Tryptophan g 0.01 Threonine g 0.027 Isoleucine g 0.02 Leucine g 0.045 Lysine g 0.036 Methionine g 0.001 Cystine g 0.007 Phenylalanine g 0.026 Tyrosine g 0.030 Valine g 0.026 Arginine g 0.037 Histidine g 0.017 Alanine g 0.045 Aspartic acid g 0.20 Glutamic acid g 0.13 Glycine g 0.035 Proline g 0.027 Serine g 0.033

Allergy

Some people experience an anaphylactoid reaction to the consumption of strawberries.[26] The most common form of this reaction is oral allergy syndrome, but symptoms may also mimic hay fever or include dermatitis or hives, and in severe cases may cause breathing problems[27] Some research suggests that the allergen may be tied to a protein involved in the ripening of fruits which was named Fra a1 (Fragaria allergen1). Homologous proteins are found in birch and apple, which suggests that people may develop cross-reactivity to all three species.

White-fruited strawberry cultivars, lacking Fra a1, may be an option for strawberry allergy sufferers. Since they lack a protein necessary for normal ripening, they do not produce the flavonoids that turn the mature berries of other cultivars red. They ripen but remain white, pale yellow or ``golden``, appearing like immature berries; this also has the advantage of making them less attractive to birds. A virtually allergen-free cultivar named 'Sofar' is available. [28][29]

Gallery

Closeup of the surface of a strawberry

Strawberry flowers and developing fruit

Halved strawberry showing internal structure

Ripe and unripe strawberries

See also

List of Strawberry Varieties Musk Strawberry (hautbois strawberry) Fragaria vesca (alpine strawberry) Plant City, Florida (strawberry capital of the world)

References

^ ``Strawberry, The Maiden With Runners``. Botgard.ucla.edu. http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Fragaria/index.html. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ ``Strawberries by Martin Welsh, history, variety and cultivation of strawberries``. Nvsuk.org.uk. http://www.nvsuk.org.uk/growing_show_vegetables_1/strawberry.php. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ a b Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York. ^ a b ``G6135 Home Fruit Production: Strawberry Cultivars and Their Culture | University of Missouri Extension``. Extension.missouri.edu. http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?P=G6135. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ Strawberry Growing, Stevenson Whitcomb Fletcher, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1917. http://books.google.com/books?id=uQA2AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA127&lpg=PA127&dq=strawberry+hermaphrodite&source=bl&ots=3LwJQvTZnr&sig=CHAv8CX22dgBJkMEXUg8Kr8kfYw&hl=en&ei=PagASrWaIIvAM6Wd1d4H&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3#PPR3,M1 ^ a b c d ``Strawberry Plasticulture Offers Sweet Rewards``. Ag.ohio-state.edu. 2002-06-28. http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~news/story.php?id=2126. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ a b c d http://www.newenglandvfc.org/pdf_proceedings/StawberryProduction.pdf ^ ``Pritts Greenhouse Berried Treasures``. Hort.cornell.edu. http://www.hort.cornell.edu/department/faculty/pritts/grnhouse.html. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ a b c ``Strawberry Fields Forever``. Noble.org. http://www.noble.org/Ag/Horticulture/StrawberryFields/index.html. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ Wang SW., Millner P. (November 2009). ``Effect of Different Cultural Systems on Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic Content, and Fruit Quality of Strawberries (Fragaria × aranassa Duch.)``. ACS Publications. pp. 9651–9657. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf9020575.  ^ Wang SY, Lin HS (November 2003). ``Compost as a soil supplement increases the level of antioxidant compounds and oxygen radical absorbance capacity in strawberries``. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (23): 6844–50. doi:10.1021/jf030196x. PMID 14582984.  ^ a b ``Proper Cultivation Yields Strawberry Fields Forever``. Larrysagers.com. 1992-04-15. http://www.larrysagers.com/weeklyarticles/proper_cultivation_yields_strawberry_fields_forever_92-04-15.html. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ ``Journal Article``. SpringerLink. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7836v248q76740r/. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ ``HS1116/HS370: Nitrogen Fertilization of Strawberry Cultivars: Is Preplant Starter Fertilizer Needed?``. Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2007-08-06. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_hs370. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ a b ``Commercial Postharvest Handling of Strawberries (Fragaria spp.)``. Extension.umn.edu. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/DG6237.html. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ ``Article: Conveyors improve the fruits of processor's labors.(Frexport S.A. de... | AccessMyLibrary - Promoting library advocacy``. AccessMyLibrary. 2000-01-01. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-5729041_ITM. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ a b ``Insect Pests of Strawberries and Their Management``. Virginiafruit.ento.vt.edu. 2000-05-03. http://www.virginiafruit.ento.vt.edu/StrawMaster.html. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ ``Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook | CFANS | University of Minnesota``. Ipmworld.umn.edu. 2009-11-20. http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/rao.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ a b c d e ``Strawberry Diseases``. Extension.umn.edu. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/DG1148.html. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ FAO stat[2] ^ http://alameda.peralta.edu/Projects/20295/Chem_1B_Lab_Manual/Experiment_9_-_pH_indicators.doc ^ ``Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Strawberries, raw``. Nutritiondata.com. http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts/fruits-and-fruit-juices/2064/2. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ BonkeurInternet. ``Strawberry Nutrition Facts. Health, Food, Diet``. Thefruitpages.com. http://www.thefruitpages.com/chartstrawberries.shtml. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ ``Strawberry Nutrition``. Sweetdarling.com. 1997-07-14. http://www.sweetdarling.com/lfiapp/Nutritional.cfm. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ Robinson, Kerry. ``Food Safety, Healthy Eating and Nutrition Information``. IFIC. http://www.ific.org/foodinsight/2003/ja/foodsensfi403.cfm. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ ``de beste bron van informatie over Allergy symptoms.Deze website is te koop!``. Allergysymptomsinfo.com. http://allergysymptomsinfo.com/Strawberry+Allergy+Symptoms.12316.htm?ra=1. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ Hjernø K, Alm R, Canbäck B, et al. (March 2006). ``Down-regulation of the strawberry Bet v 1-homologous allergen in concert with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in colorless strawberry mutant``. Proteomics 6 (5): 1574–87. doi:10.1002/pmic.200500469. PMID 16447153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200500469.  ^ The chemistry of strawberry allergy (includes 'Sofar' reference)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Strawberry F. ananassa data from GRIN Taxonomy Database University of California, Strawberry pest management guidelines California Strawberry Commission