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Turkey

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This article is about the Republic of Turkey. For other uses, see Turkey (disambiguation). Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Flag Presidential Seal Motto: Yurtta Barış, Dünyada Barış Peace at Home, Peace in the World Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı The Anthem of Independence Location of Turkey Capital Ankara 39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 Largest city Istanbul Official languages Turkish Demonym Turkish Government Parliamentary republic  -  Founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk  -  President Abdullah Gül  -  Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan  -  Speaker of the Parliament Mehmet Ali Åžahin  -  President of the Constitutional Court HaÅŸim Kılıç Succession to the Ottoman Empire²   -  Treaty of Lausanne July 24, 1923   -  Declaration of Republic October 29, 1923  Area  -  Total 783,562 km2 (37th) 302,535 sq mi   -  Water (%) 1.3 Population  -  2009 census 72,561,312[1] (18th³)  -  Density 92.6/km2 (108nd³) 239.8/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate  -  Total $915.212 billion[2] (15th)  -  Per capita $13,138[2] (61st) GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate  -  Total $729.983 billion[2] (17th)  -  Per capita $10,479[2] (54th) Gini (2005) 38  HDI (2007) â–² 0.806[3] (high) (79th) Currency Turkish lira5 (TRY) Time zone EET (UTC+2)  -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Drives on the right Internet TLD .tr Calling code 90 2 Treaty of Lausanne (1923). 3 Population and population density rankings based on 2005 figures. 4 Human Development Report 2007/2008, page 230. United Nations Development Programme (2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-30. 5 The Turkish lira (Türk Lirası, TL) replaced the Turkish new lira on January 1, 2009.

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (help·info)), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia and Thrace (Rumelia) in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north.

Separating Anatolia and Thrace are the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits (the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles), which are commonly reckoned to delineate the boundary between Europe and Asia,[4] thereby making Turkey a country of significant geostrategic importance.[5][6] Ethnic Turks form the majority of the population, followed by the Kurds. The predominant religion in Turkey is Islam. The official language is Turkish.

Turkey is the successor state to the Ottoman Empire.[7] It is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic, whose political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I. Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, WEOG, OSCE and the G-20 major economies.

Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member of the EEC since 1963, and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Eastern world, particularly with the rest of the Middle East and states of Central Asia, through membership in organizations such as the OIC and ECO. Turkey is classified as a developed country[8] by the CIA and as a regional power[9][10] by political scientists and economists worldwide.

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Etymology

Main article: Names of Turkey

The name of Turkey, Türkiye in the Turkish language, can be divided into two words: Türk, which means ``Strong`` in Old Turkic[11] and usually signifying the inhabitants of Turkey or a member of the Turkish or Turkic peoples,[11] a later form of ``Tu–kin``, a name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia as early as 177 BCE;[12] and the abstract suffix –iye (derived from the Arabic suffix –iyya, but also associated with the Medieval Latin suffix –ia in Turchia, and the Medieval Greek suffix –ία in Τουρκία), which means ``owner`` or ``related to``.

The first recorded use of the term ``Türk`` or ``Türük`` as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Sky Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century CE). The English word ``Turkey`` is derived from the Medieval Latin ``Turchia`` (c. 1369).[12]

History

Main article: History of Turkey

Antiquity

Main article: History of Anatolia Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200 BCE)

The Anatolian peninsula (also called Asia Minor), comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited regions in the world due to its location at the intersection of Asia and Europe. The earliest Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to Pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), Hacilar (Pottery Neolithic), Göbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the world.[13]

The settlement of Troy starts in the Neolithic and continues into the Iron Age. Through recorded history, Anatolians have spoken Indo-European, Semitic and Kartvelian languages, as well as many languages of uncertain affiliation. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the Indo-European languages have radiated.[14]

The Celsus Library in Ephesus, dating from 135 CE

The first major empire in the area was that of the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BCE. Subsequently, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BCE.[15] The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia. The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenistic periods.

Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. The entire area was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE.[16] Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (including Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), all of which had succumbed to Rome by the mid-1st century BCE.[17]

In 324 CE, the Roman emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome (later Constantinople and Istanbul). After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire).[18]

Turks and the Ottoman Empire

Main articles: Turkic migration, History of the Turkish people, Seljuk Empire, and Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (ca. 1680) The Selimiye Mosque is one of the most famous architectural legacies of the Ottoman Empire

The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Kınık Oğuz Turks who in the 10th century resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy.[19] In the 11th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became the new homeland of Oğuz Turkic tribes following the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt) in 1071.

The victory of the Seljuks gave rise to the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate; which developed as a separate branch of the larger Seljuk Empire that covered parts of Central Asia, Iran, Anatolia and Southwest Asia.[20]

In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols and the power of the empire slowly disintegrated. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I was to evolve over the next 200 years into the Ottoman Empire, expanding throughout Anatolia, the Balkans and the Levant.[21] In 1453, the city of Constantinople fell to the Ottoman armies of Mehmed II, marking the abolition of the Byzantine Empire.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman Empire was among the world's most powerful political entities, often locking horns with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on land;[6] and with the combined forces (Holy Leagues) of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of St. John at sea for the control of the Mediterranean basin; while frequently confronting Portuguese fleets at the Indian Ocean for defending the Empire's monopoly over the ancient maritime trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe, which had become increasingly compromised since the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.

After nearly a century of decline, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I (1914–1918) on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. During World War I, an estimated 1.5 million Armenians were killed in the Armenian Genocide.[22] Following the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman state through the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920.[21]

Republic era

Main articles: History of the Republic of Turkey and