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Wheat Bread

Nutritional Information

1 thin slice, wheat bread

  • Calories 52
  • Calories from Fat 7.38
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 0.82g1%
  • Saturated Fat 0.179g1%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.344g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.183g
  • Cholestreol 0mg0%
  • Sodium 106mg4%
  • Potassium 41mg1%
  • Total Carbohydrate 9.43g3%
  • Dietary Fiber 0.9g4%
  • Sugars 1.1g
  • Protein 1.83g4%
  • Calcium 2mg0%
  • Iron 4mg22%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 0%

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Wheat Bread on Wikipedia:

This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (July 2007) Common wheat or bread wheat Ears of common wheat Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Subfamily: Pooideae Tribe: Triticeae Genus: Triticum Species: T. aestivum Binomial name Triticum aestivum L.

Common wheat, Triticum aestivum, (also known as bread wheat) is a cultivated wheat species.

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Nomenclature and taxonomy of the variety and its cultivars

Further information: Taxonomy of wheat This section requires expansion.

List of the cultivars

Albimonte [1] Manital [1] This section requires expansion.

Evolution

Bread wheat is an allohexaploid (an allopolyploid with six sets of chromosomes, two sets from each of three different species). Free-threshing wheat is closely related to spelt. As with spelt, genes contributed from goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii) give bread wheat greater cold hardiness than most wheats, and it is cultivated throughout the world's temperate regions.

Recent history

The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (December 2009)

Wheat first reached North America with Spanish missions in the 16th century, but North America's role as a major exporter of grain dates from the colonization of the prairies in the 1870s. As grain exports from Russia ceased in the First World War, grain production in Kansas doubled. Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe.

Plant breeding

Modern wheat varieties have short stems, the result of RHt dwarfing genes that reduce the plant's sensitivity to gibberellic acid, a plant hormone that lengthens cells. RHt genes were introduced to modern wheat varieties in the 1960s by Norman Borlaug from Norin 10 cultivars of wheat grown in Japan. Short stems are important because the application of high levels of chemical fertilizers would otherwise cause the stems to grow too high, resulting in lodging (collapse of the stems). Stem heights are also even, which is important for modern harvesting techniques.

Other forms of common wheat

Ears of compact wheat

Compact wheats (e.g. club wheat Triticum compactum, but in India T. sphaerococcum) are closely related to common wheat, but have a much more compact ear. Their shorter rachis segments lead to spikelets packed closer together. Compact wheats are often regarded as subspecies rather than species in their own right (thus T. aestivum subsp. compactum).

Notes and References

^ a b di Toppi, Luigi Sanità et al. (2009). ``Occurrence of different inter-varietal and inter-organ defence strategies towards supra-optimal zinc concentrations in two cultivars of Triticum aestivum L.``. Environmental and Experimental Botany 66 (2): 220–229. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.02.008.  Bonjean, Alain P. and William J. Angus (eds) (2001). The world wheat book : a history of wheat breeding. Andover: Intercept. p. 1131. ISBN 1898298726.  Excellent resource for 20th century plant breeding. Caligari, P.D.S. and P.E. Brandham (eds) (2001). Wheat taxonomy : the legacy of John Percival. London: Linnean Society, Linnean Special Issue 3. p. 190.  Heyne, E.G. (ed.) (1987). Wheat and wheat improvement. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy. p. 765. ISBN 0891180915.  Zohary, Daniel and Maria Hopf (2000). Domestication of Old World plants: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 316. ISBN 0198503563.  Standard reference for evolution and early history.

See also

Genetic traceability Genetic reliability International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants v â€¢ d â€¢ e Wheat resources History domestication  Â· Neolithic Revolution  Â· Tell Abu Hureyra  Â· Evolution: Triticeae Types of wheat wheat taxonomy  Â· Common / Bread  Â· Durum  Â· Einkorn  Â· Emmer  Â· Kamut  Â· Norin 10  Â· Red Fife  Â· Spelt  Â· winter wheat Agronomy wheat diseases (List)  Â· wheat mildew  Â· physiological and molecular wheat breeding Trade Australian Wheat Board  Â· Canadian Wheat Board  Â· wheat pool  Â· International Wheat Council  Â· International wheat production statistics  Â· peak wheat  Â· protein premium Parts straw  Â· kernel  Â· germ  Â· husk  Â· bran  Â· gluten Basic preparations None: wheatberry  Â· Milling: cracked wheat, farina / semolina / wheat meal, wheat flour (types of wheat flour), etc.  Â· Parboiling: bulgur As an ingredient bread  Â· flatbread  Â· crackers  Â· wheat gluten  Â· pasta  Â· couscous  Â· wheat beer Associated diseases: Coeliac disease  Â· Exercise-induced anaphylaxis  Â· Other Uses: Wheat pasting  Â· Wheat germ oil related concepts plant breeding  Â· whole grain vs. refined grains  Â· staple food  Â· grain trade  Â· bread riot Further information