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Yogurt

Nutritional Information

1 8 oz container, yogurt

  • Calories 143
  • Calories from Fat 31.68
  • Amount%DV
  • Total Fat 3.52g5%
  • Saturated Fat 2.27g11%
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0.967g
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0.1g
  • Cholestreol 14mg5%
  • Sodium 159mg7%
  • Potassium 531mg15%
  • Total Carbohydrate 15.98g5%
  • Dietary Fiber 0g0%
  • Sugars 15.98g
  • Protein 11.92g24%
  • Calcium 42mg4%
  • Iron 1mg6%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 3%

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Yogurt on Wikipedia:

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2009) Yoghurt Yoghurt, full fat Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 257 kJ (61 kcal) Carbohydrates 4.7 g Sugars 4.7 g (*) Fat 3.3 g saturated 2.1 g monounsaturated 0.9 g Protein 3.5 g Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.14 mg (9%) Calcium 121 mg (12%) (*) Lactose content diminishes during storage. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database Cacık, a Turkish cold appetiser yoghurt variety

Yoghurt or yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Fermentation of lactose produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Soy yoghurt, a non-dairy yoghurt alternative, is made from soy milk. Dairy yoghurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria. Milk is heated and cooled for an hour. While it is heated, the bacteria are added for fermentation.

People have been making—and eating—yogurt for at least 4,500 years. Today it is a common food item throughout the world. A nutritious food with unique health benefits, it is nutritionally rich in protein, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12.

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Etymology of the word yogurt and spelling

The word is derived from Turkish yoğurt,[1] and is related to yoğurmak 'to knead' and yoğun ``dense`` or ``thick``.[2] The letter ğ was traditionally rendered as ``gh`` in transliterations of Turkish, which used to be written in a variant of the Arabic alphabet until the introduction of the Latin alphabet in 1928. In older Turkish the letter denoted a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/, but this sound is elided between back vowels in modern Turkish, in which the word is pronounced [joˈuɾt]. Some eastern dialects retain the consonant in this position, and Turks in the Balkans pronounce the word with a hard /ɡ/.

In Bulgaria yogurt is called ``кисело мляко`` (kiselo mljako), which means ``sour milk``, while in Serbia, ``кисело млеко`` is different type of yoghurt.

In English, there are several variations of the spelling of the word; in Australia and New Zealand ``yoghurt`` prevails.[3][4] In the United Kingdom ``yoghurt`` and ``yogurt`` are both current, ``yoghurt`` being more common, and ``yoghourt`` is an uncommon alternative.[5] In the United States, ``yogurt'`` is the usual spelling and ``yoghurt`` a minor variant. In Canada, Canadian brands typically use ``yogourt`` as it is correct in both official languages, however ``yogurt`` is used as well and is common among English speakers.

Whatever the spelling, the word is usually pronounced with a short o (/ˈjɒɡərt/) in the UK, with a long o (/ˈjoʊɡərt/) in North America, Ireland, Australia and South Africa, and with either a long or short o in New Zealand.

History

There is evidence of cultured milk products being produced as food for at least 4,500 years. The earliest yoghurts were probably spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus native to and named after Bulgaria.[citation needed]

The oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder who remarked that certain nomadic tribes, including Proto-Bulgarians knew how ``to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity``.[citation needed] The use of yoghurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Diwan Lughat al-Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century.[6][7] Both texts mention the word ``yoghurt`` in different sections and describe its use by nomadic Turks.[6][7] An early account of a European encounter with yoghurt occurs in French clinical history: Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure. His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor, who allegedly cured the patient with yoghurt.[8][9] Being grateful, the French king spread around the information about the food which had cured him.

Raita, a condiment made with yoghurt, popular in India.

Until the 1900s, yoghurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire (and especially Central Asia and the Caucasus), Western Asia, South Eastern Europe/Balkans, Central Europe, and India. Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva Stamen Grigorov (1878–1945) first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yoghurt. In 1905 he described it as consisting of a spherical and a rod-like lactic acid bacteria. In 1907 the rod-like bacteria was called Lactobacillus bulgaricus (now Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus). The Russian Nobel laureat biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov's work and hypothesised that regular consumption of yoghurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants. Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularise yoghurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe.

A Sephardic Jewish entrepreneur named Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yoghurt. In 1919, Carasso, who was from Ottoman Salonika, started a small yoghurt business in Barcelona and named the business Danone (``little Daniel``) after his son. The brand later expanded to the United States under an Americanised version of the name: Dannon.

Tarator is a cold soup made of yoghurt popular in Bulgaria

Yoghurt with added fruit jam was patented in 1933 by the Radlická Mlékárna dairy in Prague.[10] It was introduced to the United States in 1947, by Dannon.

Yoghurt was first introduced to the United States by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian, who started ``Colombo and Sons Creamery`` in Andover, Massachusetts in 1929.[11][12] Colombo Yogurt was originally delivered around New England in a horse-drawn wagon inscribed with the Armenian word ``madzoon`` which was later changed to ``yogurt``, the Turkish name of the product, as Turkish was the lingua franca between immigrants of the various Near Eastern ethnicities[citation needed] who were the main consumers at that time. Yoghurt's popularity in the United States was enhanced in the 1950s and 1960s when it was presented as a health food. By the late 20th century yoghurt had become a common American food item and Colombo Yoghurt was sold to General Mills in 1993.

In India, yoghurt is commercially sold under the name ``curd``, or more commonly under the local name of ``dahi`` (Hindi), doi (Bengali), perugu (Telugu), thair (Tamil), mosaru (Kannada). The word ``yoghurt`` is unheard of in India, except for the people with exposure to western countries. Dahi is one of the five elixirs (panchamrita) often used in Hindu rituals. In many parts of India, meals often conclude with dahi. Since ancient times, it has been believed to aid in digestion and to help relieve acid reflux. Many households make their own ``curd`` at home. See below for more varieties of yoghurt that are popular in India and elsewhere.

Nutritional value and health benefits

Tzatziki, an appetiser made with yoghurt, popular in Greece and Bulgaria, where it is called Dry Tarator

Yoghurt is nutritionally rich in protein, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12.[13] It has nutritional benefits beyond those of milk. People who are moderately lactose-intolerant can enjoy yoghurt without ill effects, because much of the lactose in the milk precursor is converted to lactic acid by the bacterial culture.[14]

Yoghurt also has medical uses, in particular for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions,[15] and in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.[16] One study suggests that eating yoghurt containing L. acidophilus helps prevent vulvovaginal candidiasis, though the evidence is not conclusive.[17]

Yoghurt is believed to promote good gum health, possibly because of the probiotic effect of lactic acids present in yoghurt.[18]

A study published in the International Journal of Obesity (11 January 2005) also found that the consumption of low fat yoghurt can promote weight loss. In the trial, obese individuals who ate 3 servings of low fat yoghurt a day as part of a low calorie diet lost 22% more weight than the control group who only cut back on calories and did not have extra calcium. They also lost 81% more abdominal fat.[19]

Varieties and presentation

To offset its natural sourness, yoghurt can be sold sweetened, flavored, or in containers with fruit or fruit jam on the bottom.[20] If the fruit has been stirred into the yoghurt before purchase, it is commonly referred to as Swiss-style.[21] Most yoghurts in the North America[citation needed] have added pectin and/or gelatin to artificially create thickness and creaminess at lower cost. This type of adulterated product is also marketed under the name Swiss-style, although it is unrelated to the way yoghurt is eaten in Switzerland. Some specialty yoghurts, often called ``cream line``, have a layer of fermented fat at the top. Fruit jam is used instead of raw fruit pieces in fruit yoghurts to allow storage for weeks.[citation needed]

Sweeteners such as cane sugar are often present in large amounts in commercial yoghurt.

Dadiah sold in Bukittinggi Market

Dadiah, or Dadih, is a traditional West Sumatran yoghurt made from water buffalo milk. It is fermented in bamboo tubes.

Yogurt is popular in Nepal, where it is served both as an appetizer or dessert. Locally called dahi (दही), it is a part of the Nepali culture, used in local festivals, marriage ceremonies, parties, religious occasions, family gatherings, and so on. The most famous type of Nepalese yogurt is called juju dahu, originating from the city of Bhaktapur.

Tarator and Cacık are popular cold soups made from yoghurt, popular during summertime in Albania, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia, and Turkey. They are made with ayran, cucumbers, dill, salt, olive oil, and optionally garlic and ground walnuts.

Rahmjoghurt, a creamy yoghurt with much higher fat content (10%) than most yoghurts offered in English-speaking countries (Rahm is German for ``cream``), is available in Germany and other countries.

Cream top yogurt is yoghurt made with unhomogenized milk. A layer of cream rises to the top, forming a rich yogurt cream with a taste and texture not unlike sour cream. Cream top yoghurt was first made commercially popular in the United States by Brown Cow of Newfield, NY, bucking the trend toward low- and non-fat yoghurts.

Kefir is a slightly alcoholic (up to 0.88%) fermented youghurt originating in the North Caucasus and has been a main food staple in Russia and the other republics of the former Russian Empire.

Matsoni is a yoghurt-like dairy product, popular in Georgia and Armenia. It is started with Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Acetobacter orientalis species and has a viscous, honey-like texture. It is milder in taste than other varieties of yoghurts since it is less sour and has less alcohol than kefir.

Matsoni is called ``Caspian Sea Yogurt`` カスピ海ヨーグルト in Japan, where it is believed to have been introduced in 1986 by researchers returning from a trip to the Caucasus region of Georgia and Armenia.[22] [23] Ideally, Caspian Sea yoghurt is made at home because it requires neither special equipment nor unobtainable culture. It can be made at room temperature (20–30°C) in 10 to 15 hours.[24] In Japan, freeze-dried starter cultures are sold in department stores and online, although many people obtain starter cultures from friends.[citation needed]

Jameed is yoghurt which is salted and dried to preserve it. It is popular in Jordan.

Zabady is the yoghurt made in Egypt. It is essentially famous in Ramadan fasting as it is thought to prevent feeling thirst during fasting all day long.[25]

Raita is a yoghurt-based South Asian/Indian condiment, used as a side dish. The yoghurt is seasoned with cilantro (coriander), cumin, mint, cayenne pepper, and other herbs and spices. Vegetables such as cucumber and onions are mixed in. The mixture is served chilled. Raita has a cooling effect on the palate which makes it a good foil for spicy Indian dishes.

Dahi, or Perugu, is a yoghurt of the Indian subcontinent, known for its characteristic taste and consistency. The word dahi seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word dadhi, one of the five elixirs, or panchamrita, often used in Hindu ritual. Dahi also holds cultural symbolism in many homes in the Mithilanchal region of Bihar. It is found in different flavours, two of which are famous: sour yoghurt (tauk doi) and sweet yoghurt (meesti or podi doi). In India, it is often used in cosmetics mixed with turmeric and honey. Sour yoghurt (खट्टी दही) is also used as a hair conditioner by women in many parts of India. Dahi is also known as Thayiru (Malayalam), doi (Assamese, Bengali), dohi (Oriya), perugu (Telugu), Mosaru (Kannada), Thayir (Tamil), or Qәzana a pәәner (Pashto).

Srikand, a popular dessert in India, is made from drained yoghurt, saffron, cardamom, nutmeg and sugar and sometimes fruits such as mango or pineapple.

Strained yoghurts and yoghurt cheese

Strained yoghurts are types of yoghurt which are strained through a paper or cloth filter, traditionally made of muslin, to remove the whey, giving a much thicker consistency and a distinctive, slightly tangy taste.

Labneh is a strained yoghurt used for sandwiches popular in Arab countries. Olive oil, cucumber slices, olives, and various green herbs may be added. It can be thickened further and rolled into balls, preserved in olive oil, and fermented for a few more weeks. It is sometimes used with onions, meat, and nuts as a stuffing for a variety of pies or kebbeh (كبة) balls.

Shankleesh (also Chanklich or شنكليش) is a type of cheese made from cured dried labneh, featured in the gastronomy of Lebanon and surrounding areas.[26] The labneh is salted, dried and rolled into balls. It comes in different varieties ranging from the fresh variant in olive oil and thyme to the ``aged`` balls covered with spices.

Some types of strained yoghurts are boiled in open vats first, so that the liquid content is reduced. The popular East Indian dessert, a variation of traditional dahi called mishti dahi, offers a thicker, more custard-like consistency, and is usually sweeter than western yoghurts.

Strained yoghurt is also enjoyed in Greece and is the main component of tzadziki, a well-known accompaniment to gyros and souvlaki pita sandwiches.

Beverages

Ayran or dhalla is a yoghurt-based, salty drink popular in Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan, Republic of Macedonia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It is made by mixing yoghurt with water and (sometimes) salt. The same drink is known as dough in Iran; tan in Armenia; laban ayran in Syria and Lebanon; shenina in Iraq and Jordan; laban arbil in Iraq; majjiga (Telugu), majjige (Kannada), and moru (Tamil) in South India; lassi in Punjab and the English name ``buttermilk`` all over India. A similar drink, doogh, is popular in the Middle East between Lebanon, Iran and Afghanistan; it differs from ayran by the addition of herbs, usually mint, and is carbonated, commonly with seltzer water.

Lassi is a yoghurt-based beverage originally from the Indian subcontinent that is usually slightly salty or sweet. Lassi is a staple of Punjab. In some parts of the subcontinent, the sweet version may be commercially flavored with rosewater, mango or other fruit juice to create a very different drink. Salty lassi is usually flavored with ground, roasted cumin and red chillies; this salty variation may also use buttermilk, and is interchangeably called ghol (Bengal), mattha (North India), tak (Maharashtra), or chaas (Gujarat). Lassi is also very widely drunk in Pakistan.

A Central Asian Turco-Mongolian drink made from mare's milk is called kumis, or airag in Mongolia. Some American dairies have offered a drink called ``kefir`` for many years with fruit flavours but without carbonation or alcohol.

Sweetened yoghurt drinks are the usual form in Europe (including UK) and the US, containing fruit and added sweeteners. These are typically called ``drinking / drinkable yoghurt``, such as Yop. Also available are ``yoghurt smoothies`` which contain a higher proportion of fruit and are more like smoothies.

In Ecuador, yogurt smoothies flavored with native fruit are served with pan de yuca as a common type of fast food establishment.

See also

Curd Frozen yogurt Fermented milk products Soy yogurt Lassi Viili Smetana

References

^ Merriam-Webster Online - Yogurt entry ^ Ahmet Toprak's article ^ ``yoghurt n.`` The Australian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd edition. Ed. Bruce Moore. Oxford University Press, 2004. Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved 24 May 2007. ^ ``yoghurt n.`` Canadian brands typically use ``yogourt`` as it is correct in both official languages, however ``yogurt`` is used as well and is common among English speakers; The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. Tony Deverson. Oxford University Press 2004. Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved 24 May 2007. ^ Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 587-588. ^ a b Toygar, Kamil (1993). Türk Mutfak Kültürü Ãœzerine AraÅŸtırmalar. Türk Halk Kültürünü AraÅŸtırma ve Tanıtma Vakfı. p. 29. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ai61AAAAIAAJ&dq=yogurt+kutadgu+divan&q=divan+kutadgu#search_anchor. Retrieved 11 August 2009.  ^ a b Ögel, Bahaeddin (1978). Türk Kültür Tarihine GiriÅŸ: Türklerde Yemek Kültürü. Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları. p. 35. http://books.google.com/books?id=NuvVUlWbikYC&q=yogurt#search_anchor. Retrieved 11 August 2009.  ^ Rosenthal, Sylvia Dworsky (1978). Fresh Food. Bookthrift Co.. p. 157. ISBN 978-0876902769. http://books.google.com/books?id=6ZwvAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 11 August 2009.  ^ Coyle, L. Patrick (1982). The World Encyclopedia of Food. Facts On File Inc.. p. 763. ISBN 978-0871964175. http://books.google.com/books?id=iuPJlbBOst8C. Retrieved 11 August 2009.  ^ ``První ovocný jogurt se narodil u Vltavy`` (in ♣). 23 July 2002. http://ekonomika.idnes.cz/test.asp?r=test&c=A020723_103620_test_jan. Retrieved 27 April 2009.  ^ ``The Massachusetts Historical Society | Object of the Month``. http://www.masshist.org/objects/2004june.cfm.  ^ ``Colombo Yogurt - First U.S. Yogurt Brand - Celebrates 75 Years``. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Colombo+Yogurt+-+First+U.S.+Yogurt+Brand+-+Celebrates+75+Years%3B...-a0116520624.  ^ Yale-New Haven Hospital nutrition advisor - Understanding yogurt ^ Yogurt--an autodigesting source of lactose. J.C. Kolars et al., New England Journal of Medicine, 310:1-3 (1984) ^ O. Adolfsson et al., ``Yogurt and gut function``, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80:2:245-256 (2004) [1] ^ Ripudaman S. Beniwal, et al., ``A Randomized Trial of Yogurt for Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea``, Digestive Diseases and Sciences 48:10:2077-2082 (October, 2003) doi:10.1023/A:1026155328638 ^ Erika N. Ringdahl, `` Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis``, American Family Physician 61:11 (June 1, 2000) ^ ``Yogurt Good for Gums, Health``, dentalblogs.com (February 26, 2008) ^ Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects ^ ``Faq ``Live Cultures In Yogurt````. Askdrsears.Com. http://www.askdrsears.com/faq/fn12.asp. Retrieved 24 September 2009.  ^ ``Encyclopedia``. Web.foodnetwork.com. http://web.foodnetwork.com/food/web/encyclopedia/termdetail/0,7770,1184,00.html. Retrieved 24 September 2009.  ^ The Japan Times Bacteria spreads across nation to create slimy, healthy treat, By TAKUYA KARUBE Kyodo News ^ Health and Nutrition News ^ Japan's #1 English Magazine, Health and Beauty, Yogurt Yo ^ Acidified milk in different countries ^ ``The Famous Lebanese Cheese``. Shankleesh. http://www.shankleesh.com/. Retrieved 24 September 2009. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Yoghurt

{{Wiktionary|yoÄŸurt|yoghurt|yogurt}

US National Center for Home Food Preservation: Fermenting Yogurt at Home Acidified milk in different countries